revolution industrielle



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revolution industrielle


Aperéu du corrigé : revolution industrielle

Document transmis par : xamence

Publié le : 27/2/2008 -Format: Document en format HTML protégé

revolution industrielle






The Industrial Revolution is the most significant change of its time and radically changed many aspects of society and economy. Tools and machines evolved as needs in the environment changed.




The economy was also modernized by the introduction of industries in the US. This industrialization had many causes. First, the US had a a pioneer spirit of exploration and experimentation (Taylor and Ford). Also, the US had been gaining a huge amount of land due to the purchase of Louisiana and the &ldquo;Mexican cession&rdquo; which concerns half of the Mexican territory at that time. The fact that the government sent people west increased the population and the production. A huge amount of natural resources was available in those new territories such as coal, timber, hydroelectricity and much more. Immigration also played a role by bringing an increasing supply of laborers. Between 1860 and 1890, the population grew from31 million to 76 million. The consumer marketplace expanded, The federal government had a lot of capital, the system of liberalism and finally the newly made peace and stability made it preferable to the industrialization of the US.

Two other factors modified the American economy : Taylorism and Fordism.

Taylorism is based on three factors. The first is that the task of each worker is broke up into simple operations which makes the work go faster and the wokers don't need training and are so, easy to replace. The second is that the work should be under surveillance of a supervisor who times with a stopwatch and the third is that there should be a geographical and human separation between the conception (engineers) and the execution of the work (manual workers). Fordism was one only point : Men don't go to the work, the work goes to the men. Also Henry Ford was paying his workers 5$/day which increased the motivation and made his workers costumers and better workers. Thanks to that, Ford was able to mass-product : he produced 9000 cars everyday. He was then able to make it more affordable for the middle class.

In the 1850's only the Northwest was industrialized, the manufacturing belt. This is called the pre-industrial society. Small rural industries were emerging around the country such as Cotton factories in New Hampshire or shoe making factories in Connecticut or the Lowell's girls in Massachusetts or the rubber factory in Cleveland. The nature of that economy was mostly weapons, textile and steel.

In 1940, the US was a fully industrialized country. Industries had been spreading around the country such as in Pittsburgh, Chicago and Houston. In the manufacturing belt were the more traditional industries however in the South were the oil industries and in the West the electronics. The US cars represented 40% of the car world production. The rest of that production was in Europe : Italy, Germany, France &hellip; The agro-industries were located in the Great Plains. In order to finance such a revolution, businessmen had three options. The first was self-financing but they needed a very wealthy fortune, the second was the banks (deposit bank and merchant bank) and finally there was the stock exchange. The result of this last option was that companies needed to be very profitable in order to pay the dividend (use f vertical and horizontal integration). There were less familial companies and more and more open companies owned by foreigners. This is callled capitalism. It is risky and can lead to a crisis like the one of 1929.

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