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Pocahontas. Pocahontas, (1595?-1617), daughter of the Native American chief Powhatan. She was born in Virginia. Her real name was Matoaka; the name Pocahontas means "playful one." According to a legend, in 1608 Pocahontas saved the life of Captain John Smith by holding his head in her arms as he was about to be clubbed to death by her...

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Pueblo (people).

Pueblo (people). I INTRODUCTION Pueblo (people) (Spanish pueblo, "village"), Native Americans living in compact, apartment-like villages of stone or adobe in northwestern New Mexico and northeastern Arizona. They belong to four distinct linguistic groups, but the cultures of the different villages are closely related. The eastern villages, located along the upper Río Grande near Santa Fe...

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Sacagawea. Sacagawea or Sacajawea (1787?-1812), Shoshone Native American woman, who accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 and 1806. Her presence helped persuade many Native American tribes of the peaceful intentions of the expedition. Sacagawea also acted as an interpreter and during one incident, helped save some of the Lewis and Clark journals. Sacagawea was probably born...

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Sioux. I INTRODUCTION Sioux, Native Americans of the Siouan language family and of the Great Plains culture area. The Sioux are often discussed as a single tribe, but were really a loose alliance of many different Siouan groups. The name Sioux comes from the Ojibwa (Chippewa) word for them, rendered into French by early explorers and...

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Sitting Bull.

Sitting Bull. Sitting Bull, Native American name Tatanka Yotanka (1831?-1890), Native American leader of the Sioux, born in the region of the Grand River in present-day South Dakota. Led by Sitting Bull, the Sioux resisted efforts of the United States government to annex their lands and force them to settle on reservations. Between June 25 and June 26,...

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American Civil War.

American Civil War. I INTRODUCTION American Civil War, a military conflict between the United States of America (the Union) and the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy) from 1861 to 1865. The American Civil War is sometimes called the War Between the States, the War of Rebellion, or the War for Southern Independence. It began on...

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American Revolution.

American Revolution. I INTRODUCTION American Revolution (1775-1783), conflict between 13 British colonies in North America and their parent country, Great Britain. It was made up of two related events: the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and the formation of the American government as laid out by the Constitution of the United States in 1787. First, the

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Arab-Israeli Conflict.

Arab-Israeli Conflict. I INTRODUCTION Arab-Israeli Conflict, conflict between Arabs and Jews in the Middle East over the land of historic Israel and Palestine. The conflict has led to several wars, beginning in 1948, among Arab nations, Palestinian refugees, and the state of Israel. Since 1979 several peace accords have been signed, addressing parts of the conflict.

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Battle of Bunker Hill.

Battle of Bunker Hill. Battle of Bunker Hill, first large-scale engagement of the American Revolution, fought on June 17, 1775, in Charlestown (now part of Boston), Massachusetts. At issue in the battle was possession of Bunker Hill (34 m/110 ft) and Breed's Hill (23 m/75 ft), adjoining heights dominating Boston Harbor. About 1200 American troops, led by Colonel...

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Battle of Gettysburg.

Battle of Gettysburg. Battle of Gettysburg, battle fought July 1 through July 3, 1863, considered by most military historians the turning point in the American Civil War. The Battle of Gettysburg was a decisive engagement in that it arrested the Confederates' second and last major invasion of the North, destroyed their offensive strategy, and forced them to fight...

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Battle of Stalingrad.

Battle of Stalingrad. I INTRODUCTION Battle of Stalingrad (1942-1943), World War II battle that halted the German advance into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The Battle of Stalingrad lasted from August 1942 to February 1943. It involved the German Sixth Army and the Fourth Panzer Army, totaling about 290,000 troops, against the Soviet Red...

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La rage

Una computadora personal u ordenador personal, también conocida como PC (sigla en inglés de personal computer), es una microcomputadora diseñada en principio para ser usada por una sola persona a la vez. Una computadora personal es generalmente de tamaño medio y es usado po......

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Martin Luther King, Jr.

Martin Luther King, Jr.. I INTRODUCTION Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968), American clergyman and Nobel Prize winner, one of the principal leaders of the American civil rights movement and a prominent advocate of nonviolent protest. King's challenges to segregation and racial discrimination in the 1950s and 1960s helped convince many white Americans to support the cause...

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Vladimir Lenin.

Vladimir Lenin. I INTRODUCTION Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), Russian revolutionary leader and theorist, who presided over the first government of Soviet Russia and then that of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Lenin was the leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik Party (later renamed the Communist Party), which seized power in the October phase of the...

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Leonardo da Vinci.

Leonardo da Vinci. I INTRODUCTION Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. His profound love of knowledge and research was the keynote of both his artistic and scientific endeavors. His innovations in the field of painting influenced the course

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Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln. I INTRODUCTION Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th president of the United States (1861-1865) and one of the great leaders in American history. A humane, far-sighted statesman in his lifetime, he became a legend and a folk hero after his death. Lincoln rose from humble backwoods origins to become one of the great presidents of the...

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Louis XIV.

Louis XIV. I INTRODUCTION Louis XIV (1638-1715), king of France (1643-1715), known as the Sun King. Louis, third monarch of the Bourbon family, ruled for 72 years, the longest reign in European history. His rule typified the period of absolute monarchy in the second half of the 17th century, during which time kings ruled without the...

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Martin Luther.

Martin Luther. I INTRODUCTION Martin Luther (1483-1546), German theologian and religious reformer, who initiated the Protestant Reformation, and whose vast influence, extending beyond religion to politics, economics, education, and language, has made him one of the crucial figures in modern European history. II EARLY LIFE Luther was born in Eisleben on November 10,...

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Ferdinand Magellan.

Ferdinand Magellan. I INTRODUCTION Ferdinand Magellan (1480?-1521), Portuguese-born Spanish explorer and navigator, leader of the first expedition to circumnavigate, or sail completely around, the world. He was born in northern Portugal. Magellan set out to reach the East Indies by sailing westward from Europe, which no one was sure could be done. He intended to return...

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Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, born in 1918, South African activist, winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and the first black president of South Africa (1994-1999).

Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, born in 1918, South African activist, winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and the first black president of South Africa (1994-1999). Born in Umtata, South Africa, in what is now Eastern Cape province, Mandela was the son of a Xhosa-speaking Thembu chief. He attended the University of Fort Hare in Alice where he

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Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong. I INTRODUCTION Mao Zedong (1893-1976), foremost Chinese Communist leader of the 20th century and the principal founder of the People's Republic of China. II EARLY LIFE Mao was born December 26, 1893, into a peasant family in the village of Shaoshan, Hunan province. His father was a strict disciplinarian and Mao...

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Karl Marx.

Karl Marx. I INTRODUCTION Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all socialist thinkers and the creator of a system of thought called Marxism. With political economist Friedrich Engels, he founded scientific socialism (now known as communism); for this, Marx is considered one of the most influential thinkers of all time.

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Michelangelo. I INTRODUCTION Michelangelo (1475-1564), Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and poet whose artistic accomplishments exerted a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent European art. Michelangelo considered the male nude to be the foremost subject in art, and he explored its range of movement and expression in every medium. Even his architecture has a human...

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. I INTRODUCTION Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Austrian composer, who is considered one of the most brilliant and versatile composers ever. He worked in all musical genres of his era, wrote inspired works in each genre, and produced an extraordinary number of compositions, especially considering his short life. By the time Mozart died at

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Muhammad (prophet).

Muhammad (prophet). I INTRODUCTION Muhammad (prophet) (570?-632), last prophet of Islam, whose revelations, encompassing political and social as well as religious principles, became the basis of Islamic civilization and have had a vast influence on world history. Muhammad was born in Mecca. He belonged to the clan of Hashim, a poor but respected branch of the...

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