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Abraham Lincoln.

Abraham Lincoln. I INTRODUCTION Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th president of the United States (1861-1865) and one of the great leaders in American history. A humane, far-sighted statesman in his lifetime, he became a legend and a folk hero after his death. Lincoln rose from humble backwoods origins to become one of the great presidents of the...

19 pages - 1,80 ¤

Louis XIV.

Louis XIV. I INTRODUCTION Louis XIV (1638-1715), king of France (1643-1715), known as the Sun King. Louis, third monarch of the Bourbon family, ruled for 72 years, the longest reign in European history. His rule typified the period of absolute monarchy in the second half of the 17th century, during which time kings ruled without the...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Martin Luther.

Martin Luther. I INTRODUCTION Martin Luther (1483-1546), German theologian and religious reformer, who initiated the Protestant Reformation, and whose vast influence, extending beyond religion to politics, economics, education, and language, has made him one of the crucial figures in modern European history. II EARLY LIFE Luther was born in Eisleben on November 10,...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Ferdinand Magellan.

Ferdinand Magellan. I INTRODUCTION Ferdinand Magellan (1480?-1521), Portuguese-born Spanish explorer and navigator, leader of the first expedition to circumnavigate, or sail completely around, the world. He was born in northern Portugal. Magellan set out to reach the East Indies by sailing westward from Europe, which no one was sure could be done. He intended to return...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, born in 1918, South African activist, winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and the first black president of South Africa (1994-1999).

Nelson Mandela Nelson Mandela, born in 1918, South African activist, winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, and the first black president of South Africa (1994-1999). Born in Umtata, South Africa, in what is now Eastern Cape province, Mandela was the son of a Xhosa-speaking Thembu chief. He attended the University of Fort Hare in Alice where he

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Mao Zedong.

Mao Zedong. I INTRODUCTION Mao Zedong (1893-1976), foremost Chinese Communist leader of the 20th century and the principal founder of the People's Republic of China. II EARLY LIFE Mao was born December 26, 1893, into a peasant family in the village of Shaoshan, Hunan province. His father was a strict disciplinarian and Mao...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Karl Marx.

Karl Marx. I INTRODUCTION Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosopher and revolutionary, the most important of all socialist thinkers and the creator of a system of thought called Marxism. With political economist Friedrich Engels, he founded scientific socialism (now known as communism); for this, Marx is considered one of the most influential thinkers of all time.

2 pages - 1,80 ¤


Michelangelo. I INTRODUCTION Michelangelo (1475-1564), Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and poet whose artistic accomplishments exerted a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent European art. Michelangelo considered the male nude to be the foremost subject in art, and he explored its range of movement and expression in every medium. Even his architecture has a human...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. I INTRODUCTION Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), Austrian composer, who is considered one of the most brilliant and versatile composers ever. He worked in all musical genres of his era, wrote inspired works in each genre, and produced an extraordinary number of compositions, especially considering his short life. By the time Mozart died at

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Muhammad (prophet).

Muhammad (prophet). I INTRODUCTION Muhammad (prophet) (570?-632), last prophet of Islam, whose revelations, encompassing political and social as well as religious principles, became the basis of Islamic civilization and have had a vast influence on world history. Muhammad was born in Mecca. He belonged to the clan of Hashim, a poor but respected branch of the...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Napoleon I.

Napoleon I. I INTRODUCTION Napoleon I (1769-1821), emperor of the French, whose imperial dictatorship ended the French Revolution (1789-1799) while consolidating the reforms it had brought about. One of the greatest military commanders of all time, he conquered much of Europe. Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769, in Ajaccio, Corsica, and was given the name...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Isaac Newton.

Isaac Newton. I INTRODUCTION Isaac Newton (1642-1727), English physicist, mathematician, and natural philosopher, considered one of the most important scientists of all time. Newton formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion--laws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as through the heavens (see Mechanics). He established the modern study of optics--or the behavior of...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Peter the Great.

Peter the Great. I INTRODUCTION Peter the Great or Peter I (1672-1725), tsar and, later, emperor of Russia (1682-1725), who is linked with the Westernization of Russia and its rise as a great power. II EARLY LIFE Peter was born in Moscow of the second marriage of his father, Alexis I, who ruled...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤


Plato. I INTRODUCTION Plato (428?-347 II BC), Greek philosopher, one of the most creative and influential thinkers in Western philosophy. LIFE Plato was born to an aristocratic family in Athens. His father, Ariston, was believed to have descended from the early kings of Athens. Perictione, his mother, was distantly related to...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Marco Polo Marco Polo (1254-1324), Venetian traveler and author, whose account of his travels and experiences in China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.

Marco Polo Marco Polo (1254-1324), Venetian traveler and author, whose account of his travels and experiences in China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade. Marco Polo was born in Venice, one of the most prominent centers of trade in medieval Europe, into a merchant family. Venetian merchants of the day...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Franklin D.

Franklin D. Roosevelt. I INTRODUCTION Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), 32nd president of the United States (1933-1945). Roosevelt served longer than any other president. His unprecedented election to four terms in office will probably never be repeated; the 22nd Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, passed after his death, denies the right of any person...

16 pages - 1,80 ¤

William Shakespeare.

William Shakespeare. I INTRODUCTION William Shakespeare (1564-1616), English playwright and poet, recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists. Hundreds of editions of his plays have been published, including translations in all major languages. Scholars have written thousands of books and articles about his plots, characters, themes, and language. He is the...

23 pages - 1,80 ¤

Joseph Stalin.

Joseph Stalin. I INTRODUCTION Joseph Stalin (1879-1953), general secretary of the Communist Party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1922 to 1953, the despotic ruler who more than any other individual molded the features that characterized the Soviet regime and shaped the direction of Europe after World War II ended in 1945. Stalin...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Victoria (queen).

Victoria (queen). I INTRODUCTION Victoria (queen) (1819-1901), queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and empress of India (1876-1901). Her reign was the longest of any monarch in British history and came to be known as the Victorian era. Queen Victoria was the official head of state not only of the United...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

George Washington.

George Washington. I INTRODUCTION George Washington (1732-1799), first president of the United States (1789-1797) and one of the most important leaders in United States history. His role in gaining independence for the American colonies and later in unifying them under the new U.S. federal government cannot be overestimated. Laboring against great difficulties, he created the Continental...

19 pages - 1,80 ¤

Alexander the Great.

Alexander the Great. I INTRODUCTION Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia, conqueror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. Alexander, born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus....

2 pages - 1,80 ¤


Aristotle. I INTRODUCTION Aristotle (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher and scientist, who shares with Plato and Socrates the distinction of being the most famous of ancient philosophers. Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Ludwig van Beethoven.

Ludwig van Beethoven. I INTRODUCTION Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), German composer, considered one of the greatest musicians of all time. Having begun his career as an outstanding improviser at the piano and composer of piano music, Beethoven went on to compose string quartets and other kinds of chamber music, songs, two masses, an opera, and nine

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Buddha Buddha (563?

Buddha Buddha (563?-483?BC), Indian philosopher and the founder of Buddhism, born in Lumbin?, Nepal. He was the son of the head of the Sakya warrior caste, with the private name of Siddhartha; in later life he was known also as Sakyamuni (Sage of the Sakyas). The name Gautama Buddha is a combination of the family name Gautama and...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Julius Caesar.

Julius Caesar. I INTRODUCTION Julius Caesar (100-44 BC), Roman general and statesman whose dictatorship was pivotal in Rome's transition from republic to empire. Caesar laid the foundations of the Roman imperial system (see Roman Empire). II EARLY LIFE Born in Rome on July 12 or 13, 100 BC,

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

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