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Toutes les dissertations

Renaissance .

Renaissance . I INTRODUCTION Renaissance, series of literary and cultural movements in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. These movements began in Italy and eventually expanded into Germany, France, England, and other parts of Europe. Participants studied the great civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome and came to the conclusion that their own cultural achievements rivaled...

15 pages - 1,80 ¤

Roman Empire .

Roman Empire . I INTRODUCTION Roman Empire, political system established by Rome that lasted for nearly five centuries. Historians usually date the beginning of the Roman Empire from 27 BC when the Roman Senate gave Gaius Octavius the name Augustus and he became the undisputed emperor after years of bitter civil war. At...

25 pages - 1,80 ¤

Russian Revolutions of 1917 (Histoire) .

Russian Revolutions of 1917 (Histoire) . I INTRODUCTION Russian Revolutions of 1917, two revolutions that occurred in Russia in 1917. The first revolution, in February, overthrew the Russian monarchy. The second revolution, in October, created the world's first Communist state. The Russian revolutions of 1917 involved a series of uprisings by workers and peasants throughout the...

11 pages - 1,80 ¤

Saint Joan of Arc

Saint Joan of Arc Saint Joan of Arc (1412-1431), national heroine and patron saint of France, who united the nation at a critical hour and decisively turned the Hundred Years' War in France's favor. In French she is Jeanne d'Arc, and she is also known as the Maid of Orléans, after the French town that she saved from...

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Serfdom .

Serfdom . I INTRODUCTION Serfdom, labor system under which most European agricultural workers lived during the Middle Ages. These agricultural laborers were known as serfs and were legally bound to reside and labor on the land owned by their lord. The word serf comes from the Latin word servus, which means servant or slave. Serfdom began...

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Spanish Empire .

Spanish Empire . I INTRODUCTION Spanish Empire, overseas territories in North and South America, Asia, Africa, and Oceania that were colonized and administered by Spain. The Spanish Empire began in the 15th century as Europe began to expand overseas. Spain lost much of its empire as a result of the Latin American independence movement in the...

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Vikings .

Vikings . I INTRODUCTION Vikings, Nordic peoples--Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians--who raided and settled in large areas of eastern and western Europe during a period of Scandinavian expansion from about 800 to 1100. The raids of the Vikings in the 9th and 10th centuries are among the best-known episodes of early medieval history. These fierce attacks from...

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Vladimir Lenin .

Vladimir Lenin . I INTRODUCTION Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), Russian revolutionary leader and theorist, who presided over the first government of Soviet Russia and then that of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Lenin was the leader of the radical socialist Bolshevik Party (later renamed the Communist Party), which seized power in the October phase of...

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Winston Churchill .

Winston Churchill . I INTRODUCTION Winston Churchill (1874-1965), British politician and prime minister of the United Kingdom (1940-1945, 1951-1955), widely regarded as the greatest British leader of the 20th century. Churchill is celebrated for his leadership during World War II (1939-1945). His courage, decisiveness, political experience, and enormous vitality enabled him to lead his country through...

6 pages - 1,80 ¤

Wars of Yugoslav Succession .

Wars of Yugoslav Succession . I INTRODUCTION Wars of Yugoslav Succession, armed conflicts within the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) during the 1990s. The SFRY was a federation that consisted of six republics--Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia (see Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia--and multiple nationalities. It broke apart in 1991...

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World War I .

World War I . I INTRODUCTION World War I, military conflict, from August 1914 to November 1918, that involved many of the countries of Europe as well as the United States and other nations throughout the world. World War I was one of the most violent and destructive wars in European history. Of the 65 million...

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World War II .

World War II . I INTRODUCTION World War II, global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most devastating war in human history. It began in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually widened to include most of the nations of the world. It...

21 pages - 1,80 ¤

Adolf Hitler .

Adolf Hitler . I INTRODUCTION Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), German political and military leader and one of the 20th century's most powerful dictators. Hitler converted Germany into a fully militarized society and launched World War II in 1939 (see Federal Republic of Germany). He made anti-Semitism a keystone of his propaganda and policies and built the Nazi

9 pages - 1,80 ¤

Aegean Civilization .

Aegean Civilization . I INTRODUCTION Aegean Civilization, term used to denote the Bronze Age civilization that developed (circa 3000-1200 BC) in the basin of the Aegean Sea, mainly on Crete (Kríti), the Cyclades (Kikládhes) Islands, and the mainland of Greece. It had two major cultures: the Minoan, which flourished in Crete and reached...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Alexander the Great .

Alexander the Great . I INTRODUCTION Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia, conqueror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. Alexander, born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of...

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Ancient Greece .

Ancient Greece . I INTRODUCTION Ancient Greece, civilization that thrived around the Mediterranean Sea from the 3rd millennium to the 1st century BC, known for advances in philosophy, architecture, drama, government, and science. The term "ancient Greece" refers to both where Greeks lived and how they lived long ago. Geographically, it indicates the...

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Ancient Rome .

Ancient Rome . I INTRODUCTION Ancient Rome, the period between the 8th and 1st centuries BC in which Rome grew from a tiny settlement to an emerging empire while developing from monarchy to a republican form of government. Nearly 3,000 years ago shepherds first built huts on the hills beside the Tiber River...

22 pages - 1,80 ¤

Roald Amundsen - explorer.

Roald Amundsen - explorer. I INTRODUCTION Roald Amundsen (1872-1928), Norwegian polar explorer, who was the first to successfully navigate the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) in the Arctic and the first to reach the South Pole (December 14, 1911) in Antarctica. Amundsen was born in Borge, near Oslo, and was the son of a shipowner. He briefly studied...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Vasco Núñez de Balboa - explorer.

Vasco Núñez de Balboa - explorer. Vasco Núñez de Balboa (1475?-1519), Spanish explorer in America. He was born in Jerez de los Caballeros, Spain. Considered the first of the conquistadors (leaders of the Spanish conquest in the western hemisphere), Balboa is best known as the first European to see the Pacific Ocean. Balboa sailed to Venezuela in 1501...

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Samuel de Champlain - explorer.

Samuel de Champlain - explorer. I INTRODUCTION Samuel de Champlain (1567?-1635), French explorer, known as the father of New France, the French colonial empire in North America. He established a trading post, which eventually became the city of Québec, in 1608 at the first narrows of the St. Lawrence River and governed it until his death.

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Christopher Columbus - explorer.

Christopher Columbus - explorer. I INTRODUCTION Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), Italian-born Spanish navigator who sailed west across the Atlantic Ocean in search of a route to Asia but achieved fame by making landfall in the Americas instead. On October 12, 1492, two worlds unknown to each other met for the first time on a small island in...

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Captain James Cook - explorer.

Captain James Cook - explorer. I INTRODUCTION Captain James Cook (1728-1779), British explorer and navigator, famous for his three voyages of exploration in the South Pacific Ocean and the coastal waters of North America. Although Cook is best known as the discoverer of the Hawaiian Islands (see Hawaii), his greatest achievements were the broad scope of...

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Francisco Vásquez de Coronado - explorer.

Francisco Vásquez de Coronado - explorer. I INTRODUCTION Francisco Vásquez de Coronado (1510-1554), Spanish conquistador, first explorer of North America's Southwest, and so-called conqueror of the legendary Seven Cities of Cíbola. II EARLY CAREER Francisco Vásquez de Coronado was born in Salamanca, Spain. He first came to North America in 1535, when he...

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Hernán Cortés - explorer.

Hernán Cortés - explorer. Hernán Cortés or Hernando Cortez (1485-1547), Spanish explorer and conqueror of the Aztec Empire of Mexico. Cortés was born in Medellín, Extremadura. He studied law at the University of Salamanca but cut short his university career in 1501 and decided to try his fortune in the Americas. Cortés sailed for Santo Domingo (now the

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Hernando de Soto - explorer.

Hernando de Soto - explorer. Hernando de Soto (1500?-1542?), Spanish explorer who explored much of the state of Florida. De Soto was born in Barcarrota, Spain. In 1514 he went to Darien, in present-day Panama, as an aide to the governor, and between 1519 and 1530, he explored Central America. In 1530 he joined another adventurer, Francisco Pizarro,...

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