POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

Steven Spielberg.

Steven Spielberg. I INTRODUCTION Steven Spielberg, born in 1946, American motion-picture director, producer, and executive, whose movies feature action, suspense, special-effects wizardry, and memorable stories. Spielberg films such as Jaws (1975), E.T.--The Extra-Terrestrial (1982), Jurassic Park (1993), and Schindler's List (1993) enjoyed enormous commercial success and earned recognition for their craftsmanship. Spielberg was born in Cincinnati,...

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Jimmy Stewart.

Jimmy Stewart. Jimmy Stewart (1908-1997), American actor, known for his distinctive drawl and endearing sincerity. He was born James Maitland Stewart in Indiana, Pennsylvania. In 1932, the year he graduated from college with a degree in architecture, Stewart made his professional theater debut in Falmouth, Massachusetts, with the University Players (a company including actors Henry Fonda, Joshua Logan,...

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Meryl Streep.

Meryl Streep. Meryl Streep, born in 1949, American motion-picture actor who is noted for her versatility. Streep has been nominated for more Academy Awards than any other actress and has won twice, for best supporting actress in Kramer vs. Kramer (1979) and for best actress in Sophie's Choice (1982). Mary Louise Streep was born in Summit, New Jersey....

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Elizabeth Taylor.

Elizabeth Taylor. Elizabeth Taylor, born in 1932, American actor, an internationally celebrated and award-winning performer. Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor was born in London, England, of American parents. She returned to the United States in 1939. Taylor was noticed by talent scouts at the age of ten and made her motion-picture debut the same year in There's One Born Every...

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Shirley Temple.

Shirley Temple. Shirley Temple, born in 1928, American motion-picture actor, considered one of the most successful child stars in the history of film. She was born Shirley Jane Temple in Santa Monica, California. Propelled by an ambitious mother, Temple made her motion-picture debut at the age of three, and at age five she was featured in Stand Up

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Rudolph Valentino.

Rudolph Valentino. Rudolph Valentino (1895-1926), Italian-born motion-picture actor, considered the archetypal screen lover, idolized by female fans of the 1920s. Born Rodolfo Guglielmi in Castellaneta, Italy, he arrived in New York City in 1913 and, after holding a variety of menial jobs, eventually became a professional ballroom dancer. In 1918 he began to appear in minor roles in...

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Denzel Washington.

Denzel Washington. Denzel Washington, born in 1954, American motion-picture, theater, and television actor, one of the major African American actors of the late 20th century. Washington is widely respected for the intelligence he brings to his performances. Born in Mount Vernon, New York, Washington studied drama and journalism at Fordham University (1973-1977) and trained at the American Conservatory...

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John Wayne.

John Wayne. John Wayne (1907-1979), American motion-picture actor, beloved as the archetype of rugged, honest American manhood, and a Hollywood star for 40 years. He was born Marion Michael Morrison in Winterset, Iowa. Wayne was a star athlete at the University of Southern California when he began playing small roles in films. In 1929 he was cast in...

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Orson Welles.

Orson Welles. Orson Welles (1915-1985), American actor, producer, director, and writer, most noted for directing and starring in the landmark motion picture Citizen Kane (1941). He was born in Kenosha, Wisconsin. Rejecting college for world travel, Welles began his acting career in Ireland in 1931 and 1932. He toured the United States with the company of American actor...

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Billy Wilder.

Billy Wilder. Billy Wilder (1906-2002), American motion-picture director, writer, and producer, whose best films--usually comedies--employ his distinctive dialogue to elucidate a darkly satirical view of human nature. Born Samuel Wilder in Vienna, Austria, he later moved to Berlin, Germany, where he worked first as a journalist and then as a screenwriter. Wilder left Germany after Adolf Hitler's rise...

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Robin Williams.

Robin Williams. Robin Williams, born in 1952, American comedian and actor, who has gradually transitioned from strictly comic roles to more serious performances. He first became known for his rapid-fire style and ability to impersonate people, including a wide range of celebrities, but he later gained attention for his overall acting ability. Williams was born in Chicago, Illinois,...

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Filippo Brunelleschi.

Filippo Brunelleschi. Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446), Florentine architect, one of the initiators of the Italian Renaissance. His revival of classical forms and his championing of an architecture based on mathematics, proportion, and perspective make him a key artistic figure in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era. Brunelleschi was born in Florence in 1377 and received...

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Paul Cézanne.

Paul Cézanne. I INTRODUCTION Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), French painter, often called the father of modern art, who strove to develop an ideal synthesis of naturalistic representation, personal expression, and abstract pictorial order. Among the artists of his time, Cézanne perhaps has had the most profound effect on the art of the 20th century. He was the...

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Donatello. Donatello, real name Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (1386?-1466), Italian Renaissance sculptor, who is generally considered one of the greatest sculptors of all time and the founder of modern sculpture. Donatello was born in Florence, the son of a wool comber. When he was 17 years old, he assisted the noted sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti in constructing...

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Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes.

Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes. I INTRODUCTION Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (1746-1828), innovative Spanish painter and etcher; one of the triumvirate--including El Greco and Diego Velázquez--of great Spanish masters. Much in the art of Goya is derived from that of Velázquez, just as much in the art of the 19th-century French master Édouard...

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Walter Gropius.

Walter Gropius. Walter Gropius (1883-1969), German American architect and educator, who founded the Bauhaus, a German art school that became a seminal force in architecture and applied art during the first half of the 20th century. His central thesis, which served as the school's guiding principle, was that design (in any of its forms) should be functional, based...

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Philip C.

Philip C. Johnson. Philip C. Johnson (1906-2005), American architect whose unconventional designs united influences as diverse as the neoclassicism of German architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and the modernism of German American architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. For many years Johnson was the outstanding advocate in the United States of the starkly geometric, steel-and-glass type of architecture known...

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Frida Kahlo.

Frida Kahlo. Frida Kahlo (1907-1954), Mexican painter, who produced mostly small, highly personal self-portraits using elements of fantasy and a style inspired by native popular art. Kahlo was born in Coyoacán, Mexico, near Mexico City. While a student at Mexico City's National Preparatory School in 1925, she sustained severe injuries in a bus accident. During her recuperation, Kahlo...

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Le Corbusier.

Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier, professional name of Charles Édouard Jeanneret (1887-1965), Swiss-French architect, painter, and writer, who had a major effect on the development of modern architecture. Born on October 6, 1887, in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, he received an early art education there, then studied modern building construction under Auguste Perret in Paris. Later he spent brief periods...

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Leonardo da Vinci.

Leonardo da Vinci. I INTRODUCTION Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Florentine artist, one of the great masters of the High Renaissance, celebrated as a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scientist. His profound love of knowledge and research was the keynote of both his artistic and scientific endeavors. His innovations in the field of painting influenced the course

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Édouard Manet.

Édouard Manet. I INTRODUCTION Édouard Manet (1832-1883), French painter, whose work inspired the impressionist style, but who never identified his own work with impressionism. Manet had farreaching influence on French painting and the general development of modern art, which stemmed from his choice of subject matter from the world around him; his application of color in...

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Henri Matisse.

Henri Matisse. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), French artist, leader of the fauve group (see Fauvism), regarded as one of the great formative figures in 20th-century art, a master of the use of color and form to convey emotional expression. Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was born in Le Cateau in northern France on December 31, 1869. The son of a...

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Michelangelo. I INTRODUCTION Michelangelo (1475-1564), Italian painter, sculptor, architect, and poet whose artistic accomplishments exerted a tremendous influence on his contemporaries and on subsequent European art. Michelangelo considered the male nude to be the foremost subject in art, and he explored its range of movement and expression in every medium. Even his architecture has a human...

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Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969), German American architect, the leading and most influential exponent of the glass and steel architecture of the 20th-century International style. Born in Aachen, Germany, Mies received his principal training as an employee of architect and furniture designer Bruno Paul from 1905 to 1907 and then as an

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Claude Monet.

Claude Monet. I INTRODUCTION Claude Monet (1840-1926), French painter, a leading figure in the late-19th-century movement called impressionism. Monet's paintings captured scenes of middle-class life and the ever-changing qualities of sunlight in nature. His technique of applying bright, unmixed colors in quick, short strokes became a hallmark of impressionism. II INFLUENCES AND TRAINING

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