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Solar System - astronomy.

Solar System - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Solar System, the Sun and everything that orbits the Sun, including the planets and their satellites; the dwarf planets, asteroids, Kuiper Belt Objects, and comets; and interplanetary dust and gas. The term may also refer to a group of celestial bodies orbiting another star (see Extrasolar Planets). In this article,...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Sun - astronomy.

Sun - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Sun, closest star to Earth. The Sun is a huge mass of hot, glowing gas. The strong gravitational pull of the Sun holds Earth and the other planets in the solar system in orbit. The Sun's light and heat influence all of the objects in the solar system and allow life...

15 pages - 1,80 ¤

Titan (astronomy) - astronomy.

Titan (astronomy) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Titan (astronomy), largest moon of the planet Saturn and the only moon in the solar system with a dense atmosphere. Scientists think Titan may provide important clues about conditions on the primitive Earth, and even how life began. Titan is spherical, measuring about 5,150 km (about 3,200 mi) in diameter,...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Uranus (planet) - astronomy.

Uranus (planet) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Uranus (planet), seventh planet in distance from the Sun, third largest planet in diameter, and fourth largest in mass in the solar system. Unlike other major planets, Uranus is tipped sideways on its axis of rotation. It experiences extreme seasons, and its 13 rings and 27 known moons revolve around...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Venus (planet) - astronomy.

Venus (planet) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Venus (planet), second planet in distance from the Sun, but the hottest planet in the solar system (hotter than Mercury). Its hellish surface has broiling temperatures that make rocks glow red under a crushing atmosphere that shrouds the planet in thick layers of clouds. Venus is nearly the same size...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Aerospace Medicine - astronomy.

Aerospace Medicine - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Aerospace Medicine, branch of preventive medicine that is concerned with the physiological and psychological stresses on the human body in flight. The study of effects within the earth's atmosphere is also called aviation medicine; beyond this atmosphere the study of effects is also called space medicine. Aerospace medicine was recognized...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

Apollo Program - astronomy.

Apollo Program - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Apollo Program, American manned lunar-space program designed to land an astronaut on the Moon and return him safely to Earth, as well as to overtake the former Soviet Union in the race to dominate space exploration. Conducted between May 1961 and December 1972 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

6 pages - 1,80 ¤

Artificial Satellite - astronomy.

Artificial Satellite - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Artificial Satellite, any object purposely placed into orbit around Earth, other planets, or the Sun. Since the launching of the first artificial satellite in 1957, thousands of these "man-made moons" have been rocketed into Earth orbit. Today, artificial satellites play key roles in the communications industry, in military intelligence, and...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Astrobiology - astronomy.

Astrobiology - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Astrobiology or Exobiology, study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe, including life on Earth. The term exobiology may be used interchangeably with the term astrobiology. Some scientists, however, restrict exobiology to mean only the study of how life might exist beyond Earth (extraterrestrial life). Exobiology...

6 pages - 1,80 ¤

Astronaut - astronomy.

Astronaut - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Astronaut, crew member on piloted spaceflights. The term astronaut comes from the Latin words astrum ("star") and nauta ("mariner") and is used mostly in Englishspeaking countries. Russians who go into space are called cosmonauts. French space travelers are called spationauts. The International Astronomical Federation defines space travel as beginning 100 km...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Buzz Aldrin - astronomy.

Buzz Aldrin - astronomy. Buzz Aldrin, born in 1930, United States astronaut, aerospace engineer, author, and pilot. On July 20, 1969, Aldrin became the second human being to set foot on the moon. He served as the pilot of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module, the capsule that descended to the surface of the moon (see Apollo program). Aldrin...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Challenger Disaster - astronomy.

Challenger Disaster - astronomy. Challenger Disaster, accident that destroyed the United States space shuttle Challenger 73 seconds after takeoff from the Kennedy Space Center on January 28, 1986. The crew--mission commander Francis R. Scobee; pilot Michael J. Smith; mission specialists Ronald E. McNair, Ellison S. Onizuka, and Judith A. Resnik; and payload specialists Gregory B. Jarvis and Christa...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

European Space Agency - astronomy.

European Space Agency - astronomy. European Space Agency (ESA), organization formed in 1975 from the merger of the European Space Research Organization and the European Launcher Development Organization. The purpose of ESA is to promote European cooperation in the development of space research and technology. Its members include Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Galileo (spacecraft) - astronomy.

Galileo (spacecraft) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Galileo (spacecraft), American unmanned spacecraft designed to orbit Jupiter and send a probe into its atmosphere. Launched on October 18, 1989, from the space shuttle Atlantis, the Galileo orbiter followed a circuitous route before reaching Jupiter in 1995. It then moved into orbit around the planet and began monitoring and

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Gemini Program - astronomy.

Gemini Program - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Gemini Program, series of American piloted spacecraft launched to develop the techniques necessary to send humans to the moon. Gemini's specific objectives were to rendezvous and dock with a second orbiting vehicle; learn how to keep astronauts and equipment in space for up to two weeks; develop and test controlled...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) - astronomy.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) - astronomy. Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the first general-purpose orbiting observatory. Named after American astronomer Edwin P. Hubble, the Hubble Space Telescope was launched on April 24, 1990. The HST makes observations in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (see Electromagnetic Radiation). The primary mirror of the HST has a...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Infrared Space Observatory - astronomy.

Infrared Space Observatory - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), satellite dedicated to the study of astronomical objects through the infrared radiation that the objects emit (see Infrared Astronomy). Launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1995, the ISO transmitted data about the molecular structure of some of the most far-reaching objects in the...

3 pages - 1,80 ¤

John Glenn - astronomy.

John Glenn - astronomy. John Glenn, born in 1921, United States senator and astronaut. Glenn was the first American to orbit the earth, aboard the third piloted flight of the Mercury program. He also became the oldest person ever to go into space when he rode aboard the space shuttle Discovery in late 1998. Glenn was born in...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Luna (space program) - astronomy.

Luna (space program) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Luna (space program), series of spacecraft that the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) launched toward the moon in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The USSR applied the name Luna to a variety of automated lunar probes. Early Luna probes were simple, in part because they were rushed...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Lunar Orbiter - astronomy.

Lunar Orbiter - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Lunar Orbiter, series of United States spacecraft that orbited the moon between August 1966 and January 1968. The primary mission of the Lunar Orbiters was to provide detailed photographs of the Apollo Zone, the region of the moon where the Apollo astronauts planned to land (see Apollo program). The first...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Magellan (spacecraft) - astronomy.

Magellan (spacecraft) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Magellan (spacecraft), United States space probe that was launched in 1989 and mapped most of the surface of the planet Venus. The Magellan Venus radar mapper provided the first detailed global map of Venus's hidden surface. Magellan was built mostly from spare parts from other spacecraft. It carried a large...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Mariner - astronomy.

Mariner - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Mariner, name of a series of ten United States space probes, launched from 1962 to 1973, designed to explore Mercury, Venus, and Mars, the three planets of the inner solar system. Mariner 2, which flew past Venus, was the first probe to reach another planet. Mariner 4 was the first probe...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Mars (space program) - astronomy.

Mars (space program) - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Mars (space program), series of spacecraft that the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) launched toward the planet Mars in the 1960s and 1970s. The Mars program spacecraft included fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, and landers. The USSR hoped to use human fascination with Mars to win highly visible victories...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Climate Orbiter, United States spacecraft launched in 1998 to explore the planet Mars.

Mars Climate Orbiter Mars Climate Orbiter, United States spacecraft launched in 1998 to explore the planet Mars. A navigational error caused the spacecraft to orbit too close to Mars, where it was apparently destroyed by friction with the Martian atmosphere. Mars Climate Orbiter was one of a series of U.S. Mars probes that began with Mars Global Surveyor

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Mars Pathfinder - astronomy.

Mars Pathfinder - astronomy. I INTRODUCTION Mars Pathfinder, United States spacecraft that landed on the planet Mars on July 4, 1997. Pathfinder was the first U.S. Mars lander since the Viking probes of the 1970s and the first in a series of small, inexpensive spacecraft scheduled to reach Mars every 26 months until 2005. The lander...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

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