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Aztec Empire.

Aztec Empire. I INTRODUCTION Aztec Empire, Native American state that ruled much of what is now Mexico from about 1428 until 1521, when the empire was conquered by the Spaniards. The empire represented the highest point in the development of the rich Aztec civilization that had begun more than a century earlier. At the height of...

5 pages - 1,80 ¤

Sermon sur la chute de Rome

Laurent Maxime Université Catholique de l'OuestInstitut de Psychologie et de Sociologie AppliquéesAnnée universitaire 2012- 2013Licence 2 Parcours: sociologie et anthropologie-ethnologie UE : Théories et domaines Matière : Théories anthropologiques Enseignant: Mr Dominik Bretteville Le sermon sur la chute de Rome - Jérôme Ferrari Table des...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤

Le Horla

Né en 1850 à Tourville-sur-Arques, Guy de Maupassant est un écrivain français renommé pour ses romans, mais surtout pour ses nouvelles. Histoire du vieux temps fut sa première oeuvre qu'il publia, à l'âge de 29 ans, après avoir terminé ses études en droit et avoir été mobilisé volontairement lors de la guerre franco-prussienne. Bien sûr, il...

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Armenian Massacres .

Armenian Massacres . I INTRODUCTION Armenian Massacres, series of deadly acts against Armenians living in the Ottoman Empire, organized by government authorities in the last decades of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century. The most devastating massacres began in 1915 during World War I (1914-1918). These wartime atrocities have become known as...

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Benito Mussolini .

Benito Mussolini . I INTRODUCTION Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), founder of Fascism and prime minister and dictator of Italy (1922-1943). Known as Il Duce (Italian for "the leader"), Mussolini centralized political power in Italy and bound the nation to him with his charisma. His vast personal power, strong-arm methods, and extreme nationalism made him a model for

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Berlin Wall Berlin Wall, fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, built in 1961 and maintained by the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany, until 1989.

Berlin Wall Berlin Wall, fortified wall surrounding West Berlin, built in 1961 and maintained by the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), commonly known as East Germany, until 1989. The Berlin Wall was a highly visible symbol of the Cold War, the post-1945 struggle between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies, including East Germany, and...

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Black Death .

Black Death . I INTRODUCTION Black Death, outbreak of bubonic plague that struck Europe and the Mediterranean area from 1347 through 1351. It was the first of a cycle of European plague epidemics that continued until the early 18th century. The last major outbreak of plague in Europe was in Marseilles in 1722. These plagues had...

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British Empire .

British Empire . I INTRODUCTION British Empire, name given to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the former dominions, colonies, and other territories throughout the world that owed allegiance to the British Crown from the late 1500s to the middle of the 20th century. At its height in the early 1900s, the British...

6 pages - 1,80 ¤

Byzantine Empire .

Byzantine Empire . I INTRODUCTION Byzantine Empire, eastern part of the Roman Empire, which survived after the breakup of the Western Empire in the 5th century AD. Its capital was Constantinople (now ?stanbul, Turkey). Constantinople became a capital of the Roman Empire in 330 after Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, refounded...

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Charlemagne .

Charlemagne . I INTRODUCTION Charlemagne (742?-814), in Latin Carolus Magnus (Charles the Great), king of the Franks (768-814) and emperor of the Romans (800-814). During his reign, Charlemagne built a kingdom that included almost all of western and central Europe and he presided over a cultural and legal revival that came to be known as the

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Cold War .

Cold War . I INTRODUCTION Cold War, term used to describe the post-World War II struggle between the United States and its allies and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and its allies. During the Cold War period, which lasted from the mid-1940s until the end of the 1980s, international politics were heavily shaped by...

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Colonialism and Colonies .

Colonialism and Colonies . I INTRODUCTION Colonialism and Colonies, one country's domination of another country or people--usually achieved through aggressive, often military, actions--and the territory acquired in this manner. The terms colonialism and imperialism are sometimes used interchangeably, but scholars usually distinguish between the two, reserving colonialism for instances where one country assumes political control over...

12 pages - 1,80 ¤

Communism .

Communism . I INTRODUCTION Communism, a theory and system of social and political organization that was a major force in world politics for much of the 20th century. As a political movement, communism sought to overthrow capitalism through a workers' revolution and establish a system in which property is owned by the community as a whole...

28 pages - 1,80 ¤

Crusades .

Crusades . I INTRODUCTION Crusades, series of wars by Western European Christians to recapture the Holy Land from the Muslims (see Palestine). The Crusades were first undertaken in 1096 and ended in the late 13th century. The term Crusade was originally applied solely to European efforts to retake from the Muslims the city of Jerusalem, which...

6 pages - 1,80 ¤

East India Company .

East India Company . I INTRODUCTION East India Company, any of a number of commercial enterprises formed in western Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries to further trade with the East Indies. The companies, which had varying degrees of governmental support, grew out of the associations of merchant adventurers who voyaged to the East Indies...

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Elizabeth I .

Elizabeth I . I INTRODUCTION Elizabeth I (1533-1603), queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603), daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth was the longest-reigning English monarch in nearly two centuries and the first woman to successfully occupy the English throne. Called Glorianna and Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth enjoyed enormous popularity during her...

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English Revolution .

English Revolution . I INTRODUCTION English Revolution, also called the Puritan Revolution, general designation for the period in English history from 1640 to 1660. It began with the calling of the Long Parliament by King Charles I and proceeded through two civil wars, the trial and execution of the king, the republican experiments of Oliver Cromwell,...

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Europe .

Europe . I INTRODUCTION Europe, conventionally one of the seven continents of the world. Although referred to as a continent, Europe is actually just the western fifth of the Eurasian landmass, which is made up primarily of Asia. Modern geographers generally describe the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, part of the Caspian Sea, and the Caucasus...

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European Union .

European Union . I INTRODUCTION European Union (EU), organization of European countries dedicated to increasing economic integration and strengthening cooperation among its members. The European Union headquarters is located in Brussels, Belgium. As of 2007 there were 27 countries in the EU. The European Union was formally established on November 1, 1993. It is the most...

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French Revolution .

French Revolution . I INTRODUCTION French Revolution, major transformation of the society and political system of France, lasting from 1789 to 1799. During the course of the Revolution, France was temporarily transformed from an absolute monarchy, where the king monopolized power, to a republic of theoretically free and equal citizens. The effects of the French Revolution...

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Henry VIII .

Henry VIII . I INTRODUCTION Henry VIII (1491-1547), king of England (1509-1547), the image of the Renaissance king as immortalized by German artist Hans Holbein, who painted him hands on hips, legs astride, exuding confidence and power. Henry VIII had six wives, fought numerous wars in Europe, and even aspired to become Holy Roman Emperor (see

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Holocaust .

Holocaust . I INTRODUCTION Holocaust, the almost complete destruction of Jews in Europe by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II (1939-1945). The leadership of Germany's Nazi Party ordered the extermination of 5.6 million to 5.9 million Jews (see National Socialism). Jews often refer to the Holocaust as Shoah (from the Hebrew word for

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Holy Roman Empire .

Holy Roman Empire . I INTRODUCTION Holy Roman Empire, political entity of lands in western and central Europe, founded by Charlemagne in AD 800 and dissolved by Emperor Francis II in 1806. The extent and strength of the empire largely depended on the military and diplomatic skill of its emperors, both of which...

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Hundred Years' War .

Hundred Years' War . I INTRODUCTION Hundred Years' War, armed conflict between France and England during the years from 1337 to 1453. The Hundred Years' War was a series of short conflicts, broken intermittently by a number of truces and peace treaties. It resulted from disputes between the ruling families of the two countries, the French...

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Industrial Revolution .

Industrial Revolution . I INTRODUCTION Industrial Revolution, widespread replacement of manual labor by machines that began in Britain in the 18th century and is still continuing in some parts of the world. The Industrial Revolution was the result of many fundamental, interrelated changes that transformed agricultural economies into industrial ones. The most immediate changes were in...

9 pages - 1,80 ¤

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