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Archaeology. I INTRODUCTION Archaeology, the scientific study of past human culture and behavior, from the origins of humans to the present. Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils (preserved bones) of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts--items such as...

18 pages - 1,80 ¤

Biblical Archaeology.

Biblical Archaeology. I INTRODUCTION Biblical Archaeology, the scientific study of historical remains and records related to the Jewish and Christian religions, and specifically to the Bible. Accounts of Christian pilgrimages dating from about the 4th century provided the only information about biblical sites until the 19th century, when modern exploration of Palestine began. II

3 pages - 1,80 ¤


Culture. I INTRODUCTION Culture, in anthropology, the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It also distinguishes humans from other animals. A people's culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and...

13 pages - 1,80 ¤

Donald Johanson.

Donald Johanson. Donald Johanson, born in 1943, American paleoanthropologist specializing in the study of human evolution. Born in Chicago, Illinois, Johanson received his bachelor's degree at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign in 1966. He earned a doctorate in anthropology at the University of Chicago in 1974. In 1972 Johanson became an assistant professor of anthropology at Case Western...

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Franz Boas.

Franz Boas. Franz Boas (1858-1942), German American anthropologist and ethnologist, born in Minden, and educated at the universities of Heidelberg, Bonn, and Kiel. In 18831884 he made a scientific exploration of the Baffin Island region of the Arctic. Two years later he immigrated to the United States and made the first of many trips to study the Kwakiutl...

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Funeral Rites and Customs.

Funeral Rites and Customs. I INTRODUCTION Funeral Rites and Customs, observances connected with death and burial. Such observances are a distinctive human characteristic. Not only are they deeply associated with religious beliefs about the nature of death and the existence of an afterlife, but they also have important psychological, sociological, and symbolic functions for the survivors....

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Heinrich Schliemann.

Heinrich Schliemann. I INTRODUCTION Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890), German archaeologist who excavated, with spectacular success, Troy, Mycenae, and other ancient Aegean cities associated with the heroes of Greek mythology. His extraordinary life, vividly recounted in his memoirs, has captivated countless readers. II EARLY LIFE AND CAREER Schliemann was born and raised in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, northern...

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Human Evolution.

Human Evolution. I INTRODUCTION Human Evolution, lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people evolved over a period of at least 6 million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism--walking on two legs as the primary form of...

30 pages - 1,80 ¤


Neandertals. I INTRODUCTION Neandertals or Neanderthals, prehistoric humans who lived in Europe, the Middle East, and western Asia from about 200,000 to 28,000 years ago. Scientifically, they are usually classified as a separate species, Homo neanderthalensis. Although closely related to modern humans (Homo sapiens), Neandertals were physically distinct. Short and stocky in build, they had large,...

4 pages - 1,80 ¤


Pompeii. I INTRODUCTION Pompeii, ancient city of Italy, in the Campania Region, built at the mouth of the Sarnus River (now Sarno), a few miles south of Mount Vesuvius, between Herculaneum and Stabiae. The city was founded about 600 Roman colony in 80 BC BC by the Oscans, who were later conquered by...

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Richard Leakey.

Richard Leakey. Richard Leakey, born in 1944, Kenyan conservationist and fossil hunter whose discoveries have contributed immensely to the study of human evolution. His parents, Louis and Mary Leakey, introduced him to paleoanthropology at a young age. Paleoanthropology is the study of fossilized remains of extinct humanlike creatures called hominines, some of which are thought to be the...

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Rites of Passage.

Rites of Passage. I INTRODUCTION Rites of Passage, ceremonies that mark a person's progress from one role, phase of life, or social status to another. The term was first used by the Belgian anthropologist Arnold van Gennep. The basic life changes are birth, puberty, marriage, and death. Each change is marked by a transitional period involving...

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Stone Age.

Stone Age. I INTRODUCTION Stone Age, period of human technological development characterized by the use of stone as the principal raw material for tools. In a given geographic region, the Stone Age normally predated the invention or spread of metalworking technology. Human groups in different parts of the world began using stone tools at different times...

11 pages - 1,80 ¤


Stonehenge. I INTRODUCTION Stonehenge, prehistoric monument on Salisbury Plain, north of Salisbury, in southwestern England, that dates from the late Stone and early Bronze ages (about 30001000 BC). The monument, now in ruins, consists of a circular group of large upright stones surrounded by a circular earthwork. Stonehenge is the best preserved and

2 pages - 1,80 ¤

Woody Allen.

Woody Allen. Woody Allen, born in 1935, American motion-picture director, actor, and writer, many of whose films are humorous depictions of neurotic characters preoccupied with love and death. Allen frequently stars in his own movies. He was born Allen Stewart Konigsberg in Brooklyn, New York. At the age of 15, using the name Woody Allen, he began to...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Lucille Ball.

Lucille Ball. Lucille Ball (1911-1989), American motion-picture and television actor and comedian, famous for portraying the character Lucy Ricardo in the popular television program "I Love Lucy" (1951-1957). Born Lucille Desiree Ball in Jamestown, New York, she began acting at the age of 15. After moving to Hollywood, California, in 1933, she appeared in dozens of motion pictures,...

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Ingrid Bergman.

Ingrid Bergman. Ingrid Bergman (1915-1982), Swedish actor, born in Stockholm, and educated at the Royal Dramatic Theater School, Stockholm. She quickly became a star in Swedish films. Her performance in Intermezzo (1936), her 11th film, brought her to the attention of American film producers. Her first film in the U.S. was an English-language version of Intermezzo (1939). She...

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Humphrey Bogart.

Humphrey Bogart. Humphrey Bogart (1899-1957), American motion-picture actor, who achieved great success in gangster and tough-guy roles. Born in New York City, Humphrey DeForest Bogart began his acting career performing on the New York stage, including appearances in Meet the Wife (1923), Cradle Snatchers (1925), and Saturday's Children (1928). His first notable success in film was in The...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Marlon Brando.

Marlon Brando. Marlon Brando (1924-2004), American actor known for his use of the naturalistic "method" style of acting (see Stanislavsky Method). Despite an inconsistent career, Brando is widely considered to be one of the most gifted and influential actors of his generation. Marlon Brando, Jr., was born in Omaha, Nebraska, where his father was a salesman and his...

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James Cagney.

James Cagney. James Cagney (1899-1986), American actor and Academy Award winner, noted for his tough-guy roles. Born in New York City, Cagney attended Columbia University and made his Broadway debut in the chorus of the musical revue Pitter Patter in 1920. He continued singing and dancing in vaudeville and musical revues until 1930, when he appeared in his...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Frank Capra.

Frank Capra. Frank Capra (1897-1991), American motion-picture director and producer, noted for his idealistic comedies. Frank Capra was born in Palermo, Italy. His family immigrated to the United States when Capra was six, settling in Los Angeles, California. His first important job in Hollywood was as a writer for the Mack Sennett studios. He subsequently worked as a...

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Charlie Chaplin.

Charlie Chaplin. Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977), English motion-picture actor, director, producer, and composer, one of the most creative artists in film history, who first achieved worldwide fame through his performances in silent films. His full name was Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin. Born in London, as a child Chaplin appeared in music hall and pantomime performances. In 1910 he toured...

1 page - 1,80 ¤

Tom Cruise.

Tom Cruise. Tom Cruise, born in 1962, American motion-picture actor, who became a celebrity in the 1980s after his performance in Risky Business (1983), a satire of suburban adolescence. In the 1990s Cruise became one of the world's most popular film stars. Born Thomas Cruise Mapother IV in Syracuse, New York, he appeared in a succession of motion...

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Robert De Niro.

Robert De Niro. Robert De Niro, born in 1943, American motion-picture actor, often hailed as one of the most brilliant of his generation. The son of two artists, De Niro was born in New York City and trained at two of the city's acting studios, the Stella Adler Conservatory and the American Workshop. De Niro's initial film roles...

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James Dean.

James Dean. James Dean (1931-1955), American actor on film, stage, and television, whose early death in an automobile accident contributed to his enduring legend. Dean was born in Marion, Indiana, and was educated in California at Santa Monica Junior College and the University of California at Los Angeles. During his first attempt to break into Hollywood motion pictures,...

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