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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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KRAUSS, WERNER

KRAUSS, WERNER (1884–1959), actor; with Fritz Kortner,* the premier performer on Germany's Expressionist* stage. Born in the Franconian village of Gestungshausen, he descended from a line of Lutheran pastors. While he was studying at a teachers' institute in Breslau, he was suspended for repeated appearances on a local stage. He acted from 1904 with traveling companies in Breslau, Aachen, and Nuremberg and then...

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KOLLWITZ, KATHE

KOLLWITZ, KATHE, ne´e Schmidt (1867–1945), sculptor and graphic artist; her empathetic work made her one of the century's best-known women* artists. Born in Ko¨nigsberg, she was inspired by a socialist-Christian upbringing. She moved to Berlin* in 1885 to study at Karl Stauffer-Bern's School for Women Artists and pursued similar studies in Munich during 1888–1889. After marrying the physician Karl Kollwitz in 1891, she...

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KOHLER, HEINRICH

KOHLER, HEINRICH (1878–1949), politician; Finance Minister in Wilhelm Marx's* fourth cabinet. Born in Karlsruhe, he joined the civil service,* beginning work in 1897 in Baden's Finance Office. He was elected in 1911 to Karlsruhe's city assembly and entered the Landtag in 1913 as a Center Party* deputy. In 1915–1918 he was a tariff commissioner in occupied Belgium. Close to Joseph Wirth* and a...

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KLEIBER, ERICH

KLEIBER, ERICH (1890–1956), conductor; led Berlin's* Staatsoper during 1923–1934. Born to a language teacher in Vienna, he was orphaned at age seven and raised first by his maternal grandparents in Prague and then by an aunt in Vienna. It was by way of performances of the Mahler-directed Court Opera (Hofoper) that he formed his love for music.* In 1908 he went to...

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KLAGES, LUDWIG

KLAGES, LUDWIG (1872–1956), cultural theorist; a member of the George Circle for whom ‘‘research into the unconscious became worship of the unconscious'' (Pachter). Born in Hanover, he studied physics and philosophy before taking a doctorate in 1901 in chemistry. Despite what he called a ‘‘practical'' approach to education, his humanistic bent led him to coedit Bla¨tter fu¨r die Kunst during 1892–1904 with Stefan...

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KEHR, ECKART

KEHR, ECKART (1902–1933), historian; deemed the enfant terrible of the German historical community. Born in Brandenburg to a respected family of academics, he matured into a democrat with strong socialist leanings. While studying at Berlin,* he served as Assistent to Friedrich Meinecke.* Kehr was unique at challenging the academy's political history by giving it a systematic socioeconomic basis. Taking inspiration from Max Weber,*...

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KASTL, LUDWIG

KASTL, LUDWIG (1878–1969), economics expert; participated in negotiations for both the Dawes and Young plans.* Born near the Rhineland village of Altenbamberg, he was raised in Bad Mu¨nster am Stein. He studied law and political science before taking state exams and accepting appointment with the provincial government of Upper Bavaria. In 1906, recently assigned to the colonial section of the Foreign Office, he...

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KANTOROWICZ, ERNST

KANTOROWICZ, ERNST (1895–1963), historian; among the century's premier medievalists. Born to an affluent middle-class family in Posen (now Poznan), he was studying philosophy at Berlin* when World War I erupted. He volunteered for the army and served first in France (he was wounded at Verdun) and then in Turkey. While working on the Baghdad Railway, he learned Arabic and formed an interest in...

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KANDINSKY, WASSILY

KANDINSKY, WASSILY (1866–1944), painter and writer; La´szlo´ Moholy- Nagy* called him ‘‘the great initiator of abstract painting, whose theoretical work represents the beginning of a new art history'' (Selz). Born in Moscow, he received a solid education in music* and jurisprudence. After he completed formal studies in 1893, he began a legal apprenticeship; indeed, until age thirty he never studied art. But in...

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KAISER WILHELM SOCIETY

KAISER WILHELM SOCIETY (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft, KWG). Founded in 1911 as part of a centennial celebration for the University of Berlin,* the KWG was sponsored by the German Emperor. Its goal was to create institutes in which scholars pursued pure and applied research beyond the scope of universities dedicated primarily to teaching. Its leading voice and its president until 1930 was the theologian Adolf von...

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JESSNER, LEOPOLD

JESSNER, LEOPOLD (1878–1945), actor, director, and theater* manager; Berlin's* most renowned director in the Republic's early years. Born in Ko¨- nigsberg, he began his stage career in 1897 as an actor with the Cottbus Stadttheater. Soon after 1900 he acted and directed with the Ibsen Theater. He was appointed director of Hamburg's Thaliatheater in 1908; his imaginative summer programming with the city's Volksschauspiele...

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JASPERS, KARL

JASPERS, KARL (1883–1969), philosopher; among the founders of existentialism. Born in Oldenburg in East Frisia, he studied law before taking a medical doctorate in 1909 at Heidelberg; he then worked at Heidelberg's psychiatric hospital as a research assistant. In 1913, after he published his masterful Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General psychopathology), he was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor of psychology at Heidelberg. Just after World War I he...

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ITTEN, JOHANNES

ITTEN, JOHANNES (1888–1967), artist; developed the Bauhaus's* introductory course in design. Born in the Berner Oberland in Switzerland, he attended the teachers institute in Bern-Hofwil before studying at Geneva's E ´ cole des Beaux Arts. Although he prepared to teach secondary school (he received a diploma in 1912), he soon turned to painting and studied during 1913–1916 under Stuttgart's Adolf Hoelzel. He turned...

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HUSSERL, EDMUND

HUSSERL, EDMUND (1859–1938), philosopher; devised phenomenology, a method of probing beneath external existence to a positive perception of fundamental essence. Born of Jewish parentage in the Habsburg city of Prossnitz, he studied mathematics at Berlin* and psychology at Vienna and taught at Halle, Go¨ttingen, and Freiburg (from 1916). His circle of skilled students was such that when he was called in 1923 to...

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HERTZ, GUSTAV

HERTZ, GUSTAV (1887–1975), physicist; with James Franck,* provided proof for Max Planck's* quantum theory. Born in Hamburg, a nephew of physicist Heinrich Hertz, he studied at Berlin,* where he was mentored by Heinrich Rubens and took a doctorate in 1911. While collaborating with Franck in the laboratory of Emil Warburg, he detected quantized energy transfer in collisions between electrons and atoms. This initial...

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HELLPACH, WILLY

HELLPACH, WILLY (1877–1955), psychologist and politician; DDP candidate for President in 1925. Born to a court official in the Lower Silesian town of Oels (now Olesnica), he switched from medical studies to psychology and earned a doctorate in 1899 under Leipzig's Wilhelm Wundt; he completed a second doctorate in 1903 in medicine. He founded a neurological practice in Karlsruhe and wrote his Habilitation...

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HAVENSTEIN, RUDOLF

HAVENSTEIN, RUDOLF (1857–1923), Reichsbank President; largely responsible for the postwar monetary policies that induced Germany's hyperinflation. Born in the Brandenburg town of Meseritz (now Miedzyrzecz), he studied law and became a county-court judge. Having joined the Prussian Finance Ministry in 1890, he was named President in 1891 of the Seehandlungs-Societa¨t (Sea-Commerce Society), an organization attached to the Prussian State Bank. By transforming the society...

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HARZBURG FRONT

HARZBURG FRONT; label attached to the so-called National Opposition against Heinrich Bru¨ning's* government. Comprised of the NSDAP (Hitler*), the DNVP (Alfred Hugenberg*), the Stahlhelm* (Franz Seldte*), the Pan- German League, and the Vaterla¨ndische Verba¨nde, the members convened at Hugenberg's invitation on 11 October 1931 in Bad Harzburg, two days after Bru¨ning announced a new cabinet. They were joined by Hjalmar Schacht,* Fritz Thyssen,* Hans...

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HARTLAUB, GUSTAV

HARTLAUB, GUSTAV (1884–1963), art historian; coined the term Neue Sachlichkeit.* Born in Bremen to a well-established family, he studied modern art history and completed a doctorate in 1910 at Go¨ttingen. From 1920, when he began directing Mannheim's Sta¨dtische Kunsthalle, he spent twelve years building a major collection of nineteenth- and twentieth-century art while giving lectures and hosting exhibitions. The Nazis dismissed him in...

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HANFSTAENGL, ERNST PUTZI

HANFSTAENGL, ERNST ‘‘PUTZI'' (1887–1975), journalist; the NSDAP's foreign press chief during 1931–1934. Born to a family of Munich art connoisseurs, he studied at Harvard during 1905–1909 and, to his regret, spent World War I in the United States. He returned to graduate work at Munich and took a doctorate in 1930. During his studies he met Rudolf Hess* and in 1921 joined the...

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HAHN, OTTO

HAHN, OTTO (1879–1968), chemist; directed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry during 1928–1944. Born in Frankfurt, he decided at an early age to become an industrial chemist. Defying his father, who wanted him to be an architect, he began studies at Marburg in 1897 and completed a doctorate in organic chemistry in 1901. To cultivate his English, Hahn obtained a position in 1904...

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THE HAGUE CONFERENCES

During 1929–1930 two meetings, both focused on the Young Plan,* were held at The Hague. Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy participated. The first meeting, held 6–31 August 1929, was attended on the German side by Gustav Stresemann,* Julius Curtius,* Rudolf Hilferding,* and Joseph Wirth* (Foreign, Economics, Finance, and Occupied Territories Ministers, respectively), plus three financial experts: Hjalmar Schacht,* Ludwig Kastl,* and Carl...

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HAASE, HUGO

HAASE, HUGO (1863–1919), politician; first chairman of the USPD. Born to a Jewish merchant in East Prussia's Allenstein, he studied law before opening a legal practice in Ko¨nigsberg. He thereafter gained renown defending the poor. Elected the first Social Democrat on Ko¨nigsberg's city council in 1894, he attracted national attention in 1904 with his defense of Otto Braun* (Prussia's* future Prime Minister). A...

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GUMBEL, EMIL JULIUS

GUMBEL, EMIL JULIUS (1891–1966), mathematician and pacifist; his documentation on political murders, published in 1922, established him as one of Germany's noted pacifists. Born to a Munich banker, he completed studies in mathematics and economics in July 1914, just before volunteering for military service. The war soon converted him to pacifism; in 1915 he joined the Bund Neues Vaterland, an organization committed to...

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GROPIUS, WALTER

GROPIUS, WALTER (1883–1969), architect; director of the Bauhaus.* The son of a Berlin* architect, he began his own architectural studies in 1903 at Munich's Technische Hochschule. During 1906–1907 he constructed the first buildings of his own design for an uncle in Pomerania. While working in Berlin in 1908–1910 as chief assistant to Peter Behrens,* he became friends with Ludwig Mies.* Establishing a practice...

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