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TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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« L'ordre règne à Varsovie. »

Phrase attribuée au ministre français des Affaires étrangères, Sébastiani, après l'écrasement par les Russes de la Révolution polonaise de 1830. Il avait été interpellé sur la situation en Pologne. Cette Téponse « à la Ponce Pilate » lui fut beaucoup reprochée....

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« La Fayette, nous voilà ! »

Ces mots ont été prononcés par les officiers américains venant au secours de la France en 1917-1918. Il s'agissait d'un hommage à La Fayette, jeune officier qui avait traversé l'Atlantique en 1777 pour se joindre aux combattants américains en lutte pour leur indépendance contre la Grande-Bretagne....

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Jules César

Jules César fut à la fois homme politique, orateur, général, grand conquérant et écrivain [La Conquête des Gaules]. Il aspira très vite au pouvoir suprême. Il amorce sa carrière en s'appuyant sur le parti populaire seul capable de briser Pompée et avec lui le sénat romain. Successivement questeur, édile curule. préteur, grand pontife, il fait alliance avec Pompée et Crassus...

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Citations sur le thème de l'Histoire

« Le roman est l'histoire du présent, tandis que l'histoire est le roman du passé. » Jean Guéhenno (1890-1978), d'origine bretonne très modeste, devint inspecteur général de l'Éducation nationale, et fut l'un des grands intellectuels du Front populaire. « Il est nécessaire de connaître le passé pour comprendre le présent, mais la connaissance de l'actualité permet aussi de mieux comprendre le...

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Les grandes périodes historiques

La Préhistoire comprend les faits ou événements survenus avant l'invention de l'écriture et de la métallurgie. L'Antiquité s'étend, selon les historiens, jusqu'au partage de l'Empire romain (an 395), ou jusqu'à la chute de l'Empire romain d'Occident (an 476). Le Moyen Âge commence au Ve siècle et s'achève, selon les historiens, au milieu ou à la fin du XVe siècle soit...

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Citations : "L'HISTOIRE"

« L'histoire de toutes les sociétés jusqu'à nos jours est celle de la lutte des classes. » Karl Marx (1818-1883), Manifeste du parti communiste, 1848. « Chacun fait, à un moment ou à un autre de sa vie, sa rencontre avec l'Histoire. » Pierre Miquel (né en 1930), Lettre ouverte aux bradeurs de l'histoire. « L'histoire est un roman qui a...

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La docte ignorance

Une vérité « subsistante » existe où se réalise pleinement le monde idéal : il s'agit d'une « preuve de l'existence de Dieu » longuement développée dans Du libre arbitre, I, II. Il faut enfi n garder en mémoire une formule maintes fois reprise par les théologiens et les mystiques : « Dieu, que l'on connaît d'autant mieux qu'on sait combien on ne...

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L'extase plotinienne

La fi n ultime de cette purifi cation est l'extase qui nous révèle à nous-même : s'orienter vers l'Un n'est pas sortir de soi, mais y entrer à nouveau. Il ne faut donc pas comprendre l'extase comme une pensée, mais comme la source de toute pensée. L'Un est ici intériorité de l'esprit comme l'esprit est intériorité de l'âme. Il procure le salut...

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Conversion et purification chez PLOTIN

Il n'y a d'ordre et de clarté que par et dans l'esprit ; la pensée « perçoit qu'elle pense » (IV, 3, 30), « s'accompagne elle-même » (I, 4, 10), se défi nit ainsi comme conscience. C'est la matière qui fait le sensible distinct de l'intelligence, elle est impure : elle est l'expression inversée du Noûs. Mais, « à mépriser l'existence, on...

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Axis (Tripartite) Pact

Concluded on September 27, 1940, at Berlin among Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis, or Tripartite, Pact was the primary treaty creating the alliance of the three major Axis powers in World War II. The pact was concluded early in the war and at a time of high triumph for Germany, which had already 140 Austria invaded and conquered Poland, occupied France and created the puppet...

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Austria

Austria Having entered World War I as the Habsburg Imperial and Royal Monarchy—the Austro-Hungarian Empire—the nation emerged from defeat in that conflict as a much diminished and dismembered Republic of Austria, 32,400 square miles in extent, with a population of 6.7 million. The Treaty of Versailles expressly barred Austria from union with Germany. However, by virtue of the Anschluss of March 1938, the nation was incorporated into Adolf...

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Australia, navy of

At the time of the outbreak of World War II in Europe, September 1939, the Royal Australian Navy consisted of two heavy cruisers and four light cruisers, five obsolete destroyers, and two vessels classified as sloops (smaller than destroyers). Two liners were converted as armed merchantmen for the Royal Australian Navy, and another three were converted for the British Royal Navy, but manned by Australians. Additionally,...

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Australia, army of

When World War II began in Europe in September 1939, the Australian Army consisted of 82,800 soldiers, of whom the overwhelming majority— 80,000—were minimally trained militiamen. The 2,800 regulars included officers and noncommissioned officers as well as some coastal artillery 138 Australia, air force of personnel. Australia immediately contributed a division to the war in Europe, and it instituted simultaneously a program of voluntary enlistment for service overseas...

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Australia

Constituting the world's smallest continent, Australia is a vast country that lies between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. During World War II, its location was of supreme strategic importance, with the Netherlands East Indies and New Guinea directly to the north, and the Coral Sea Islands to the northeast. The Japanese eyed Australia as the greatest of Asian-Pacific prizes and believed that...

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Auschwitz extermination camp

Oswiecim was one of many towns in southern Poland annexed to the German Reich after the fall Auschwitz extermination camp 135 of Poland in 1939. Germans called it Auschwitz, and it was here, outside the town proper, that a complex of three particularly infamous Nazi extermination camps were built during 1940–42. Auschwitz I, built in June 1940, was intended to hold Polish political prisoners. Auschwitz II,...

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Aung San

Aung San (1914 or 1916–1947) Burmese collaborator with the Japanese Aung San was the leader of the Dobama Asi-ayone ("We Burmans") Society, popularly known as the Thakin Society, a pre–World War II Burmese nationalist group made up of communist-leaning students mostly from Rangoon University. Thakin is the Burmese word for "master," commonly used 134 Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre by colonial Burmans in addressing Europeans; applying it to a...

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Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre

Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre (1884– 1981) British commander in North Africa and the Middle East Auchinleck was the son of an army officer, and, destined from childhood for a military career, he was educated at Wellington and Sandhurst. On graduation, he was assigned as an officer in the Indian Army and saw service during World War I against Turkish forces in the Middle East. During the Great...

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Attlee, Clement

Attlee, Clement (1883–1967) British prime minister at the end of World War II Clement Attlee replaced Winston Churchill as prime minister of the United Kingdom in July 1945, after leading his Labour Party out of the coalition with the Conservatives and achieving a large parliamentary majority. He served as prime minister until October 1951. Thus, Attlee was at the helm of British government as the war...

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Armed neutrality, U.S.

The U.S. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1937, and 1939 ostensibly codified in law U.S. neutrality in the gathering European conflict. However, each act also incrementally aligned the "neutral" United States with the Allies and against Germany and Italy. Although in its original form the final Neutrality Act (1939) prohibited the arming of merchant vessels, Congress amended the act on November 17, 1941, after encounters with German U-boats...

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Arctic convoy operations

The Allies' merchant marine resources undertook some of the most arduous and dangerous missions of World War II, and none was more harrowing than the Arctic convoys that transported war materiel from ports in Great Britain and Iceland to the Soviets. Some 4.43 million tons of supplies were shipped by Arctic convoys, representing 22.7 percent of the supplies the USSR received under Lend Lease. Losses were...

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Anzio Campaign

The Italian Campaign proved to be far more difficult than Allied planners had imagined, and when the advance that followed the Salerno landings stalled, it was decided to make a second landing on Italy's west coast in an effort to break through the Winter Line and speed up the capture of Rome. In conference at Marakesh, the Allies decided on Operation Shingle, sending Maj. Gen....

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Antonescu, Ion

Antonescu, Ion (1882–1946) Romanian dictator during the World War II era As dictator of Romania during World War II, Antonescu aligned his nation with the Axis. He was born in Pitesti, Romania, on June 15, 1882, and served in the Romanian army during World War I. Antonescu, Ion 65 After the armistice, he remained in the army as military attaché in Paris and then in London. Returning...

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Anti-Comintern Pact

The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded on November 25, 1936, at Berlin between Germany and Japan. On November 6 of the following year, Italy joined Germany and Japan in the pact. Ostensibly a defensive alliance against the perceived menace of the Soviet-controlled "Communistic International," or Comintern, the document was also the formal basis of the Tokyo- Berlin-Rome Axis, the World War II ideological and military alliance among Germany,...

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Antiarmor weapons

The tank was developed during World War I as a proposed answer to the trench warfare stalemate on the western front. Not only could the vehicles— when they worked—traverse trenches, their armor was impervious to machine gun and rifle fire. Although tanks were neither sufficiently numerous nor sufficiently reliable to make a decisive impact on combat in World War I, their potential had been demonstrated, and,...

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Antiaircraft weapons

Air attack, including tactical attacks against ground troops, ground installations, and naval targets as well as strategic attacks against cities, factories, and other ostensibly civilian targets as well as major military installations, was a major component of combat in World War II. Accordingly, the warring powers made extensive use of a variety of antiaircraft weapons. The antiaircraft artillery (AAA) of this period consisted of conventional artillery, sometimes...

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