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TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

Antiarmor weapons

The tank was developed during World War I as a proposed answer to the trench warfare stalemate on the western front. Not only could the vehicles— when they worked—traverse trenches, their armor was impervious to machine gun and rifle fire. Although tanks were neither sufficiently numerous nor sufficiently reliable to make a decisive impact on combat in World War I, their potential had been demonstrated, and,...

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Antiaircraft weapons

Air attack, including tactical attacks against ground troops, ground installations, and naval targets as well as strategic attacks against cities, factories, and other ostensibly civilian targets as well as major military installations, was a major component of combat in World War II. Accordingly, the warring powers made extensive use of a variety of antiaircraft weapons. The antiaircraft artillery (AAA) of this period consisted of conventional artillery, sometimes...

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Anschluss

The German word for "joining together" or "union," Anschluss describes the March 1938 political union of Austria with Germany that resulted when Adolf Hitler unilaterally annexed Austria to the Third Reich. Anschluss was originally an initiative of an Austrian political party, the Social Democrats, who agitated for it from 1919 (after the Austrian government rejected it) through 1933, at which point Hitler's sudden elevation to power...

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Anderson shelter

The Anderson shelter was a personal bomb shelter used by some 2.25 million London families during The Blitz. The shelter consisted of 14 sheets of corrugated iron or corrugated galvanized steel, which were assembled to form a shell 6 feet high, 4.5 feet wide, and 6.5 feet long. The structure was assembled in a 4-foot-deep pit dug in the family garden, then it was covered...

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Anderson, John

Anderson, John (1882–1958) British home secretary and civil defense advocate John Anderson (later Sir John Anderson, first viscount Waverley) was born at Eskbank by Dalkeith in Midlothian and was educated at the University of Edinburgh and Leipzig University. After service in World War I, Anderson entered the British government as chair of the Board of the Inland Revenue in 1919 and then as governor of Bengal,...

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Anami Korechika

Anami Korechika (1887–1945) Japanese general, vice minister of war, and militarist Anami was an important Japanese general, who, as vice minister of war in the cabinet of Prince Konoye Fumimaro, led the faction that elevated General Tojo Hideki to power as Japan's generalissimo in October 1941. In the field, Anami commanded the Eleventh Army in China and the Second Area Army in Manchukuo. When portions of the...

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“Amerika” bomber

In contrast to Britain and the United States, Germany never produced in quantity long-range heavy bomber aircraft. Nevertheless, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium, the Reich Aviation Ministry, in charge of aircraft production for the Luftwaffe from 1933 to the end of the war in 1945, sought to develop a very large, very-long-range bomber capable of a round-trip transatlantic mission to strike the United States from Germany. Early in the war,...

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Alsace-Lorraine

Located on France's border with Germany, Alsace- Lorraine encompasses two predominantly Germanspeaking regions (in German, Elsass and Lothringen), which have frequently been disputed between France and Germany. The provinces fell to France in the late 17th century and early 18th, but as a result of France's humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, all of Alsace and the northern portion of Lorraine (mainly Moselle) were...

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Algeria

Located in North Africa, Algeria, at the time of World War II, was a French colony of 6.6 million, about 1 million of whom were European. With the fall of France and the creation of the Vichy government, General Maxime Weygand became the Vichy delegate-general of Algeria in September 1940. Essentially dictator of the colony, Weygand, in conformity to Nazi and Vichy policy, acted against Jews...

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Albania

Situated on the western Balkan Peninsula at the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea, Albania was, at the outbreak of World War II, a monarchy with a population of a little more than 1 million. During the reign of Albania's King Zog I, Italy became increasingly influential in the country, and on April 7, 1939, the forces of Italy's Benito Mussolini...

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Alam el Halfa, Battle of

Commencing on August 31, 1942, a month after the German Panzerarmee Afrika was checked at the Battles of El Alamein, Alam el Halfa was Erwin Rommel's final attempt to break through to the Nile valley in continuation of his frustrated drive across Cyrenaica and western Egypt. Leading the British Eighth Army, Gen. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery deployed his forces near Alam el Halfa, an east-west ridge...

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NAVY AND MARINE CORPS AIRCRAFT

The U.S. Navy and U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) flew some of the same planes as the USAAF, but the navy aircraft, U.S. 31 in particular had two special requirements: fighters that could take off and land on aircraft carriers, and seaplanes. The following are some of the best-known navy and USMC aircraft of World War II. F2A Buffalo. The Brewster F2A Buffalo was the first monoplane...

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Aircraft, Soviet

That the German military aircraft industry entered World War II with innovative and devastatingly effective designs surprised no one, but little was expected of the Soviets. While it is true that some Soviet aircraft designs were obsolescent or even obsolete at the outbreak of war, the nation also produced a number of superb aircraft. Ilyushin II-4. Among the bombers, only the major Soviet model is generally...

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Aircraft, Polish

Like its other military forces at the outbreak of World War II, the Polish air force was gallant and determined but massively outnumbered, outgunned, and outclassed. During the Blitzkrieg Invasion of Poland in September 1939, most of Poland's aircraft were destroyed on the ground. Nevertheless, Poland built one bomber and one fighter of note. P.Z.L. P.37 LosB. This twin-engine medium bomber was powered by a 918-horsepower Bristol Pegasus...

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Aircraft, Japanese

By the beginning of World War II, the Japanese military had developed a variety of advanced aircraft, both land based and carrier based. Like Germany, the Japanese emphasized the development of fighter planes and, in contrast to the British and Americans, devoted little or no attention to heavy bombers. Like Germany, Japan developed no heavy four-engine bomber. The "Betty." The heaviest Japanese bomber— which by Allied standards...

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Aircraft, Italian

Like France, Italy, an early aviation pioneer, lagged behind Germany, Britain, and the United States in the design of military aircraft. Nevertheless, Italian designers were resourceful in compensating for deficiencies. Savoia-Marchetti SM79. The Savoia-Marchetti SM79, Italy's most important bomber, produced in a quantity of 1,330, used wooden construction to conserve scarce wartime metals and was configured as a trimotor, a design that compensated for the low power (780...

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Aircraft, German

German aircraft designs were consistently among the most advanced and successful of the war. Of all the nations, Germany was the first to begin to make significant use of jet aircraft, although these nevertheless came too late in the war and in insufficient quantity to have a decisive effect on the course of the air war. The Luftwaffe (German air force) had a few advocates...

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Aircraft, French

Although the French had been early pioneers of military aviation and had developed important combat aircraft during World War I, few French designs played important roles in World War II. The most significant French bomber was the Liori et Olivier LeO 451. Introduced in 1937, this medium bomber, crewed by four, was driven by two 1,060-horsepower Gnome-Rhone 14N engines and could achieve a top speed of...

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Aircraft, British

When war clouds gathered in the 1930s, Winston Churchill and a minority of others in the British government urged accelerated development and production of military aircraft as it became increasingly apparent that Germany, rearming in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles, was creating a large and advanced air force. The outbreak of war caught Britain with an undersized air force, and the nation consequently relied heavily...

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Airborne assault

In World War II, airborne assault referred to the deployment against the enemy of specially trained troops by parachute or Gliders. The introduction of airborne assault may be dated to 1922, when Red Army troops were first deployed by parachute. Later in the decade, Italy formed a company of military parachutists. By the end of the 1920s, the Soviet Union had created a battalion. France formed...

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African-American soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen

During World War II, the U.S. armed forces were, for the most part, racially segregated. African- American soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen were trained separately. They served in segregated units, usually commanded by white officers, although a small number of African Americans were commissioned during the war. At sea, black sailors were given segregated quarters, although modest experiments in integration were carried out. For the most part,...

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Admiralty Islands, Battle of

The Admiralty Islands are located some 200 miles northeast of New Guinea and, captured by Australian forces early in World War I, became part of the Australian mandate of New Guinea in 1921. The islands were occupied by Japan in April 1942. The Japanese established air bases on them and used Seeadler Harbor at Manus Island as a fleet anchorage. Pacific Allied theater commander Gen. Douglas MacArthur...

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Acheson, Dean

Acheson, Dean (1893–1971) U.S. diplomat instrumental in the Marshall Plan Although Dean Acheson served in government during World War II as assistant secretary of state from 1941 to 1945, he is most significant for his role in the United States' single greatest contribution to the postwar recovery and welfare of Europe, the Marshall Plan. In 1947, Acheson, at the time undersecretary of state (in the office...

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ABC-1 Staff Agreement

Concluded on March 27, 1941, at Washington, D.C. between naval and military representatives of the United States and Great Britain, the ABC-1 Staff Agreement established the practical basis of Anglo- American cooperation in the event that the United States entered the war. The document consisted of three major provisions: 1. An agreement that both powers would concentrate their efforts on defeating Germany as the most dangerous of...

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Aachen, Battle of

Aachen, near Germany's border with the Netherlands and Belgium, first distinguished in history as the capital of Charlemagne's empire, was the site of the first battle by U.S. forces on German soil and was the first German city to fall to the Allies. Located near the line of German fortifications known as the West Wall, Aachen was a prime gateway into Germany. During September 12–15, 1944,...

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