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Poly complet L2 2019-2020.pdf anglais
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ANGLAIS L2
S3 / S4
Année 2019-2020
Jean-Thomas COLOMAS
Tayalnayaguy EZHILARASAN
Bernard FROUIN
Maïa PEYRE
Florence THUREL ATA
Maria TURGUIEVA
CATHERINE WASSON

Conception: Bernard FROUIN – responsable L2
Bureau P3 006 – frouin@u-pec.fr

?CONTROLE DES CONNAISSANCES
? SEMESTRE 3
1-Deux tests de Contrôle Continu obligatoire
-un test de vocabulaire sur le lexique de la fin du polycopié – au TD 7 (25%)
-un test de compréhension orale (au TD 13) + note travail TD non présentiel. (25%)
2-Un examen terminal sur les articles étudiés en cours, vocabulaire, compréhension, expression, grammaire (50%)
? SEMESTRE 4
Le contrôle des connaissances est composé de :
1-Deux tests de Contrôle Continu obligatoire
-un test à mi-semestre TD 7 : un article donné par l’enseignant 15 jours plus tôt (lors du TD 5). L’article est à travailler
à la maison (vocabulaire, idées principales, questions de réflexion). (25%)
Le test comportera une partie vocabulaire, des questions sur le texte et un essai. (25%)
-un exposé en binômes ou trinômes au dernier TD (ou tout au long du semestre selon les groupes). Voir explications en
fin de poly. (25%)
2-Un examen terminal sur les articles étudiés en cours, vocabulaire, compréhension, expression, grammaire (50%)
?Important : les tests de contrôle continu sont obligatoires ; ils doivent être impérativement passés dans les groupes
de TD auxquels vous appartenez (et dans lequel vous suivez le Td d’anglais).
En cas d’absence, il n’y a pas de rattrapage sans justification valable.
? CONTENU DU POLYCOPIE
?Articles S3
-At last, a Brexit dividend – shame it’s for the pedlars of fake medicine p.1
-Fires in Amazon Rain Forest have surged this year p.6
-Wake up humanity! A high tech dystopian future is not inevitable p.11
?Articles S4
-Scientists work out way to make Mars fit for farming p.16
-Electronic marvels turn into dangerous trash in East Africa p.21
-The surveillance threat is not what Orwell imagined p.26

?Lexique S3 / S4 – Présentation orale S4 p. 33
?Verbes irréguliers p.47

At last, a Brexit dividend – shame it’s for the pedlars of fake medicine

Some crimes are just worse than others. The W H O reported earlier this month that fake leukaemia medicine, packaged
for the UK market to look like the genuine drug Iclusig, was circulating in Europe and the Americas. The short answer
to why anyone would do something as morally awful as this, is of course: to make money. The fake leukaemia drug,
containing mostly paracetamol, is being sold for $13,500 a pack – $450 a pill – in the US, or £5,000 a pack in the UK.

5

10

There is now a far larger market for legal medicines than there is for illegal drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, and there’s
a much smaller chance of getting caught. The (genuine) pills are for seriously sick people, so if a patient doesn’t
blossom back to health after taking (fake) treatments, doctors generally blame the tumour, not the pill.
Drug dealers are apparently figuring this out – researchers have found traces of ecstasy and Viagra ingredients in pills
posing as antimalarial medicine. Falsifiers monitor worried posts on patient forums, clock shortages of specific drugs
and weigh up what the most anxious might pay for an online sale.
On all counts, people in the UK are vulnerable right now. The criminals’ business model depends on patients taking
risks. And desperate patients will buy medicines from dodgy sources for lots of reasons, our research shows. If the
medicine you need isn’t covered by your insurance or health service, you turn to the internet.

15

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If you’re embarrassed to ask for a prescription, or you don’t have time to go and queue at the surgery, or you distrust the
generic medicine on offer at the hospital and would rather buy a well-known brand, or you were redirected to an online
pharmacy while self-diagnosing a nasty rash – all these are reasons to step away from the really very safe supply
chains that the NHS and most bricks-and-mortar pharmacies in the UK provide.
Recently patients in the UK have mentioned yet another reason for drifting away from safe sources for their medicines:
the threat of a no-deal Brexit. Patients are reported to be buying essential medicines wherever they can, stockpiling
because they fear shortages after Brexit. It’s a very legitimate fear.
At the moment, EU governments work together through the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to license medicines
for use throughout the 28 nations. But there’s no clear legal provision for the circulation in the UK of products
authorised by the EMA after 29 March. The UK’s Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is
doing its best to re-establish itself as an independent regulator; it has cobbled together a 188-page draft amendment to
current medicines regulations to stave off the worst effects of crashing out of Europe’s effective regulatory structures.
That, together with a diplomatically apocalyptic “explanatory memorandum” sitting in parliament’s inbox, along with a
zillion other pieces of urgent legislation, itching to be reviewed and signed before exit from the EU.
If it doesn’t get signed in time, the fallout may be dire. In 2018, the UK imported close to 15m kg of medicine a month
from other EU countries on average, according to HMRC customs figures, some 5m more than it exported to them.
That’s an awful lot of products to be in sudden limbo, leaving an awful lot of patients in potential need.
Even if an orderly exit deal is done, delays related to paperwork and border checks will threaten smooth supply,
possibly leading to gaps on pharmacy shelves. Though there is every indication that the MHRA is bending over
backwards to minimise disruption to companies, shelves will grow even emptier if the regulator is pressured to “take
back control” by requiring UK-specific product registration.

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40

Some companies will decide the number of patients in the UK doesn’t justify the cost of registering products for rare
diseases here; they’ll forgo UK sales, and UK patients may forgo longer or healthier lives. Expensive product
registration also pushes up prices, increasing pressure on the NHS and perhaps restricting wide access to expensive new
medicines for all Britons.
All of these things would mean even more patients turning to the internet for an affordable version of something they
want or need and can’t easily get from their local pharmacy through the NHS. And that, in turn, will make the UK a
more lucrative market for criminals flogging fake cures over the internet.
The Guardian, February 19th 2019

1

A-VOCABULARY
I-Match the verbs closest in meaning.
-quantify
-blame
-reduce
-monitor
-clock
-weigh up
-step away from

-prevent
-accuse
-jeopardize

-stave off
-threaten

-assess
-control

-minimise
-grow
-forgo

-become
-renounce
-avoid

II-Tick the word closest in meaning.
1-genuine (l.2): addictive? authentic? prohibited?
2-dodgy (l.12) identified? unreliable? banned?
3-cobbled together (l.24): cancelled? published? concocted?
2-itching (l.27): waiting? meaning? starting?
3-fallout (l.28): impact? event? link?
4-dire (l.28): favourable? improbable? terrible?
5-affordable (l.39): inefficient? low-cost? uncertain?
6-flogging (.41): exhibiting? trading? spreading?
III-Give your own synonym of:
1-fake (l.1): __________________________ 2-figuring out (l.8): ________________________
3-shortages (l.9): ________________________4-provide (l.17): ________________________
5-threat (l.19): __________________________ 6-current (l.25): _________________________
7-pushes up: (l.37) ; _______________________8-cures (l.41): __________________________
IV-Find the words which match the following definitions.
1- A place where a doctor, dentist, etc, can be consulted : _______________________
2- A trademark or distinctive name identifying a product, service, or organization. : ______________________
3-A skin eruption ; a visible lesion or group of lesions on the skin : _______________________
4- A very large indefinite number :__________________
5- A preliminary form of any writing, subject to revision, refinement, etc. : _____________________________
6- A folder in a mailbox in which incoming messages are stored and displayed : ______________________
V-The Acronyms.
WHO stands for _________________________________________________________________________
EU stands for : __________________________________________________________________________
UK stands for : __________________________________________________________________________
NHS stands for : _________________________________________________________________________
HMRC stands for :_______________________________________________________________________
B-COMPREHENSION
I-Reformulate the underlined expressions.
1- to look like the genuine drug Iclusig (l.2) :_______________________________________________________
2- doesn’t blossom back to health (l.6/7): __________________________________________________________
3- bricks-and-mortar pharmacies (l.17): ___________________________________________________________
4- to be in sudden limbo (l.30): __________________________________________________________________
5- the MHRA is bending over backwards (l.33): _____________________________________________________
6- a more lucrative market (l.41): _________________________________________________________________

2

II-What do the following words refer to?
1-“this” (l.3): ___________________________2-“it” (l.28): __________________________________
3-“they” (l.36): __________________________ 4-“that” (l.40): ______________________________________
III-Answer the questions.
1- What trend does the article highlight when it comes to buying medicine?
2- According to the article, what causes this phenomenon to occur?
3-What do some people also do to face possible shortages?
4-What do the lines 21 to 28 reveal?
5-What expression taken from the article is the opposite of « no-deal Brexit »?
6- What might some pharmaceutical companies be tempted to do?
7-What would that bring about?

IV-Translate
1-Some crimes are just worse than others. The W H O reported earlier this month that fake leukaemia medicine, packaged for
the UK market to look like the genuine drug Iclusig, was circulating in Europe and the Americas.
2- There is now a far larger market for legal medicines than there is for illegal drugs, such as heroin or cocaine, and there’s
a much smaller chance of getting caught.

3- Though there is every indication that the MHRA is bending over backwards to minimise disruption to companies, shelves
will grow even emptier if the regulator is pressured to “take back control” by requiring UK-specific product registration.

C-EXPRESSION
-What is your opinion about the dangers raised by the article, about people’s consuming habits? Is technological progress also
responsible? Can we stop this trend? Should there be a ban on this trade for public health reasons?
In the name of individual freedom, should we let anything be bought and sold on the internet?
D-GRAMMAR
I-Comparatives
- worse than others - earlier - a far larger market - a much smaller chance - even emptier - longer or healthier lives a more lucrative market
-What are the three types of comparatives in the examples above? _______________________________________
-How do you explain the difference between them? __________________________________________________
-Explain ‘emptier’ and ‘healthier’: ____________________________________________________________
-compare worse with the worst (l.26):___________________________________________________________
Note: -more lucrative ?more and more lucrative

-smaller ?smaller and smaller

/

3

/

≠ less and less + adj

Put the following adjectives in the comparative:
-genuine: ______________ -short: _____________- awful: _____________ -sick :______________
-specific: _____________ -anxious : ____________ - dodgy: ____________ - nasty: _____________
-safe : ________________- clear: _______________ -independent; ___________ -current: _____________
-dire: ________________ -sudden: ______________ -orderly:________________ - smooth: _____________
-rare: ________________ - wide: _______________- expensive: _______________- affordable: ____________
Insert, in the blanks, the necessary words, using a comparative (find the adjective).
1-In winter, days are _______________in summer.
2-A liner is _______________a barge 3-Generic drugs are
_____________ branded ones. 4-A truck is _____________ a car. 5-A sportsman is _____________a couch potato. 6-In
autumn trees are _____________in summer. 7-Pluto is _____________ from the sun ________ Neptune. 8-Your results are
much ____________ last year. What an impressive improvement! 9-Today, mobile phones are much ______________ 20
years ago. 10-He runs _______________ his brother; both have the same level.
II-The progressive form.
was circulating - are figuring out - to be buying - is doing - is bending over backwards - , is being sold
Give the tense and form (active/passive) of these verbs:
-was circulating : _______________________________
-are figuring out: ______________________________
-to be buying: ______________________________
-is doing: ________________________________
-is bending over backwards:_________________________
- is being sold:
Put the following verb in the present perfect continuous :
-was circulating : _______________________________________
Put the following verb in the past perfect continuous
-are figuring out: _____________________________________________
Put the following verb in the active form
-is being sold: __________________________________________
Put the following verb in the passive form
-is doing: _______________________________________________
III-“Would rather”
- “and would rather buy a well-known brand” (l.15) - would rather + verb without to
-reformulate with another verb form: ___________________________________________________________
-Note: We would rather people bought a well-known brand…
What has changed? ______________________________________________________________________
Translate the following sentences (use the progressive form):
1-Le gouvernement essaie de réguler la vente des médicaments sur internet mais c’est de plus en plus compliqué.
2-Des substances de plus en plus dangereuses sont vendues en ligne ; les autorités préféreraient qu’ils aillent chez le
pharmacien.
3-Le gouvernement britannique parle depuis plusieurs mois de sortir de l’UE sans accord, ce qui serait bien plus risqué pour
l’économie du Royaume Uni.

4

4-Les compagnies pharmaceutiques envisagent de renoncer à la vente de médicaments traitant certaines maladies, comme les
maladies rares; ceci aggraverait la situation de nombreux maladies qui soit arrêteraient de se soigner, soit se tourneraient vers
le commerce en ligne.

5-Selon une étude, il a été rapporté que de nombreux patients achetaient des médicaments provenant de sources de plus en
plus louches.

LISTENING COMPREHENSION - VIDEO – How to spot a bogus online pharmacy? CBS 2’14
1-What do people aim to do and why, according to the male journalist?
2-According to the female journalist, we have to know if_________________________________.
3-In the report, what advice does the man give the potential customers?
4-In local pharmacies what is taken for granted?
5-What is the proportion of rogue online pharmacies? Who says so?
6-Complete: “the _____________ says those ___________ ___________ often sell ____________ drugs or drugs that
_______________ the __________ active _________________ or too much or too ____________ of the active
__________ or drugs which ______________ dangerous _____________.
7-What is the question that customers might ask themselves?
8-What can they do to be sure?
9-What seems to confirm that the contacted online pharmacy is rogue?
10-Who is at the origin of the verification site?
11-Why?
12-So, what is the link for, according to the journalist’s conclusion?

5

Fires in Amazon rain forest have surged this year

RIO DE JANEIRO — Fires are burning in the Amazon rain forest at one of the fastest paces in years, according to Brazil’s
space research center.

5

10

15

20

The center, the National Institute for Space Research, which monitors fires using satellite images, reported on Wednesday
that it had detected 39,194 fires this year in the world’s largest rain forest, a 77 percent increase from the same period in
2018. The fires, most of which have been set by farmers clearing their land, are raging in uninhabited areas of rain forest and
intruding on populated areas in the country’s north, including the states of Rondônia and Acre. The blazes are so large and
widespread that smoke has wafted thousands of miles away to the Atlantic coast and São Paulo, the country’s most populous
city, according to the World Meteorological Organization. Widely shared photos on social media showed darkened skies over
São Paulo during the daytime, but researchers said they were working to understand whether that was connected to the fires.
On Wednesday, Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, accused nongovernmental organizations of setting the fires in the
rain forest after the government pulled their funding, although he presented no evidence. “It could be, it could, I’m not saying
it is, a criminal action by these N.G.O. people to call attention against me, against the Brazilian government,” he said. “This
is the war we face.” He said the government was working to control the blazes.
Researchers, environmentalists and former government officials have been alarmed by the destruction of the Amazon rain
forest, which is one of the world’s most important natural resources and plays a vital role in absorbing carbon dioxide as
global warming advances. Deforestation of the Amazon has increased rapidly since Mr. Bolsonaro, who was elected in
October, took office and his government cut back on efforts to confront illegal activity in the rain forest. Critics say Mr.
Bolsonaro’s policies have emboldened loggers, farmers and miners who want to clear out land illegally.
Mikaela Weisse, a manager of Global Forest Watch, a program for the World Resources Institute, an environmental research
group, said the rate in the number of fires detected by satellite images this year was roughly comparable to 2016. “It is
definitely something to be concerned about, especially with more research coming out about reaching a tipping point,” she
said in an interview, referring to the point at which parts of the Amazon would no longer have forests and turn to savanna.
“The fires burning now are mostly happening in previously deforested areas, most likely related to agricultural practices.
Natural fires are very rare in the Amazon, so all, or almost all, the fires we are seeing are set by humans,” Ms. Weisse said.

25

This month, a local newspaper in the Amazonian state of Pará, Folha do Progresso, announced that local farmers were
planning a “Day of Fire” in August. Increases in the number of fires were recorded days later. Local newspapers also
reported that states in the Amazon were trying to respond to a crisis. In Amazonas, a crisis cabinet was set up, and in Acre,
the governor declared a state of environmental alert to stop the fires because the air pollution could present a serious health
hazard.

30

Henrique Barbosa, a professor at the University of São Paulo and part of the Physics Institute’s Atmospheric Physics
Laboratory, said that the number of fires in the Amazon had been rising for the last two presidential administrations, but that
they got worse this year. Dr. Barbosa said the fires were a marker of the final stage of deforestation, in which trees are cut
down for market and then loggers and farmers burn the rest.

35

40

Ane Alencar, the science director at the Amazon Environmental Research Institute in Brazil, said she was shocked by the
numbers, especially because the Amazon is not going through an extreme drought period, as happened from 2014 to 2016
because of El Niño. The drought period goes from the end of August to November in some states, and it is typically when
farmers set fires in the forest to clear out land. “I’m concerned. We are at the beginning of the fire season. This could still get
much worse. What I can say with absolute certainty is that there is a very strong relationship between deforestation and fires.
This isn’t a wildfire,” she said.
Dr. Barbosa and other researchers are now trying to understand if the smoke rising from the fires in the Amazon — or in
surrounding areas — had wafted over São Paulo, where residents were concerned that the unusual darkness that fell over the
city this week was caused by the fires. “We are trying to understand how much of this black soot was suspended over São
Paulo. In reality, all the signs suggest it will get worse,” he added. “There is nothing on the horizon t hat gives us the tiniest
bit of hope something will be done to protect the environment in the next four years.” , he said.
The New York Times, August 23rd 2019

6

A-VOCABULARY
I-Match the verbs closest in meaning.
-reduced
-wafted
-brought about
-connected
-cut back
- emboldened
- set

-started
-registered
-floated

- recorded
- cut down

-felled
-constituted

-set up
-concerned
-caused

-worried
-linked
-encouraged

II-Give a synonym of :
1-increase (l.4): ___________________________2-widespread (l.7): ________________________
3-evidence (l.11): _________________________4-advances (l.16): ___________________________
5-confront (l.17): _________________________6-happening (l.23): ___________________________
7-likely (l.23): ___________________________8-hazard (l.29): ____________________________
9-going through (l.35): ______________________10-tiniest (l.43): ____________________________
III-Tick the word closest in meaning.
1-paces (l.1): speeds? trends? sizes?
2-monitors (l.3): uses? controls? analyzes?
3-rate (l.22): proportion? strength?
rise?
4- roughly (l.20): totally? not at all? more or less?
5- tipping (l.21): common? extreme? average?
6-stage (l.32): border? sector? phase?
IV-What words (taken from the article) do the following definitions refer to ?
1-A strong burst of fire: _____________________
2-People engaged in the activity of exploiting timber (wood): ___________________
3-A flat, treeless grassland of tropical and subtropical regions: _______________________
4-A long period of dry weather and low rainfall: __________________________
5-The fine black particles, chiefly composed of carbon, produced by combustion of coal, oil, wood…: __________
B-COMPREHENSION
I-Reformulate the underlined expressions.
1- in uninhabited areas of rain forest (l.5): ___________________________________________________
2- Brazil’s far-right president (l.10): ________________________________________________________
3- pulled their funding (l.11): _____________________________________________________________
4- since Mr. Bolsonaro took office (l.17): _________________________________________________________
5- who want to clear out land illegally (l.18): __________________________________________________
6- in surrounding areas (l.41): ___________________________________________________________________
II-Answer the questions.
1-What is new about these fires in the Amazonian rain forest?
2-What is said to be at the origin of the blazes?
3-For what reason (s)?
4-How do the brazilian authorities respond? Why do you think they react like that?
5-What makes us think that these fires are not a climatic phenomenon?
6-What are the consequences of such fires (referred to in the article, but not only)?

7

7-What might exacerbate these fires in the next few months?
8-Why does Dr Barbosa allude to the next four years (last paragraph)?

III-Translate the following passages.
1-The fires, most of which have been set by farmers clearing their land, are raging in uninhabited areas of rain forest and
intruding on populated areas in the country’s north, including the states of Rondônia and Acre.
2- Widely shared photos on social media showed darkened skies over São Paulo during the daytime, but researchers said
they were working to understand whether that was connected to the fires.
3- Henrique Barbosa said that the number of fires in the Amazon had been rising for the last two presidential
administrations, but that they got worse this year.
4- There is nothing on the horizon that gives us the tiniest bit of hope something will be done to protect the environment in the
next four years.”, he said.
C-EXPRESSION
Knowing that some people deliberately set fires to vital forests like Amazonia, what should be done to stop the phenomenon,
and then, to right the wrong done to the environment, populations, and finally Earth?
How can we make these people understand that we are sawing off the branch that we are sitting on and digging our own
grave?
D-GRAMMAR
I- Relative pronouns
1- The fires, most of which have been set by farmers 2- the Amazon rain forest, which is one of the world’s most important
natural resources 3- Mr. Bolsonaro, who was elected in October
4- loggers, farmers and miners who want to clear out
land illegally 5- referring to the point at which parts of the Amazon would no longer have forests 6 - a marker of the final
stage of deforestation, in which trees are cut down for market 7- the unusual darkness that fell over the city 8- nothing
on the horizon that gives us the tiniest bit of hope 9- This is the war we face 10- the fires we are seeing…
?-What does ‘which’ refer to ? ____________________
?-What does ‘who’ refer to ? _____________________
?-What does ‘that’ refer to ? _______________________
?-Compare ‘which’ in example 2 and in examples 5 and 6. _______________________________________________
?-In example 1 – Remove ‘which’, and rephrase : Most ___________________________________________________
?-What other quantifiers, instead of ‘most’ can also be used ? The fires, ___________ / __________ of which have been
set….
?-Look at example 3, and make the necessary change in the following sentence : Mr Boltsonaro, ___________ many people
liken to Trump…
?-In example 3, make the necessary change : Mr Boltsonaro, _____________policy was criticized during the G7summit, …
?-Explain the modifications : _____________________________________________________________________
?-In example 7, replace ‘that’ with another relative pronoun : ____________________________________________
?-In examples 9 and 10, what relative pronoun could be used : __________________
-Exercise: Insert the right relative pronoun.
1-The person with ________________ I am working is very competent.
2-The apartment ______________ is advertized in the paper is immediately available.
3-The village, __________________ is located in the mountains, is exposed wind and fog.
4-It is the most effective drug ____________________ patients have been given so far.
5-The man in __________________ bedroom you are, is King Louis XIV, _______________ is also called Sun King.
6-________________ I think is that smart items are more and more invasive, and therefore, a threat to privacy.

8

7-I have not seen the film _______________ you are talking about.
8-The accident __________ he was responsible for took place two years ago.
9-I do not know the person ________________ car blocks the entrance of the building.
10-All is well _____________ ends well.
II-Present Perfect and Simple Past.
-On Wednesday, Brazil’s far-right president, Jair Bolsonaro, accused nongovernmental organizations…
-Researchers, environmentalists and former government officials have been alarmed by the destruction of the Amazon rain
forest,
-Deforestation of the Amazon has increased rapidly since Mr. Bolsonaro, who was elected in October, took office
-Critics say Mr. Bolsonaro’s policies have emboldened loggers…
-When do we use the simple past ? __________________________________________________________
-When do we use the Present Perfect ? ________________________________________________________
-Among the following time markers, which ones are used with the Simple Past / the Present Perfect?
ago since last year already until now ever yesterday recently so far in 2018 - for (be careful, two meanings)
-simple past: __________________________________________________________________________________
-present perfect: ________________________________________________________________________________
-We can also find the simple past in the Reported Speech, but it does not refer to the past:
Example :
- Ane Alencar, the science director at the Amazon Environmental Research Institute in Brazil, said she was shocked by the
numbers,
Transform :
-‘I’m concerned’, she said ? she said _________________________________________________
-‘The fires burning now are mostly happening in previously deforested areas,’ she said ? she said
_________________________________________________________________________________________
‘Natural fires are very rare in the Amazon, so all, or almost all, the fires we are seeing are set by humans,’ Ms. Weisse said.
? she said ____________________________________________________________________________
Now look at the example:
Henrique Barbosa said that the number of fires in the Amazon had been rising for the last two presidential admin...


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