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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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STAMPFER, FRIEDRICH

STAMPFER, FRIEDRICH (1874–1957), journalist and politician; editor of Vorwa¨rts,* the SPD's flagship newspaper.* Born to a German-Jewish family in the Moravian capital of Bru¨nn (now the Czech city of Brno), he was raised in the Habsburg Empire. He was already interested in socialism and journalism while in Gymnasium and began working for Leipzig's Volkszeitung, a socialist newspaper, while studying at the city's university....

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STAHLHELM

STAHLHELM; Germany's largest postwar veterans' organization. Founded by Franz Seldte* on Christmas Day, 1918, the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, began with three basic principles: comradeship, support of law and order, and reconstruction. Although it was opposed to the November Revolution,* it was initially neither reactionary nor antirepublican. Membership was open to socialists and Jews* so long as they had served a minimum of...

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SPENGLER, OSWALD

SPENGLER, OSWALD (1880–1936), cultural philosopher; famous for the portentous metaphysical essay Der Untergang des Abendlandes (The Decline of the West), he was deemed ‘‘the philosopher of pessimism'' (he rejected the label). Born to a middle-class home (his father was a postal clerk) in the town of Blankenburg am Harz, he pursued broad studies in mathematics, philosophy, science, and history. After taking a doctorate...

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SOLLMANN, WILHELM

SOLLMANN, WILHELM (1881–1951), politician and journalist; one of the SPD's pragmatists, he regularly sponsored collaboration with the moderate bourgeois parties. Born to a middle-class home in the village of Oberlind, near Coburg, he completed a business apprenticeship in Cologne and attended the local Handelshochschule. In 1907, soon after joining the SPD, he founded a youth group, Freie Jugend Ko¨ln. Shifting his attention to...

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SIMONS, WALTER

SIMONS, WALTER (1861–1937), judge; served as President of the Supreme Court (1922–1929). Born in Elberfeld (now in Wuppertal) to a family long involved in silk weaving, he was raised in a pious Lutheran milieu. After eclectic studies, he began a legal career in 1888 with the Prussian civil service.* He served during 1897–1905 as a district judge in Meiningen and then became regional...

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SEISSER, HANS RITTER VON

SEISSER, HANS RITTER VON (1874–1973), military and police officer; chief of Bavaria's* State Police (Landespolizei) during the Beerhall Putsch.* A colonel at the end of World War I, he was Munich's commander after its liberation from the Ra¨terepublik and then left the army to head the Landespolizei. Renowned for his actions against leftist agitators, he protected Hermann Ehrhardt* when the latter fled to...

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SEIDEL, INA

SEIDEL, INA (1885–1974), poet and novelist; best known for Das Wunschkind (The wish child), the 1930 story of the relationship between a boy and his widowed mother during the Prussian Wars of Liberation. Born in Halle to a well-known literary family, she cultivated an interest in literature. She was raised in Braunschweig, Marburg, and, after her father's early death, Munich. The trauma of...

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SCHUCKING, WALTHER

SCHUCKING, WALTHER (1875–1935), jurist, politician, and professor; a pacifist who served on The Hague's International Court of Justice. Born in Mu¨nster, he was raised in a family of scholars and took a doctorate in 1899 in international law and German legal history. He was named Privatdozent in 1900 at Breslau (now Poland's* Wroclaw) and was appointed ordentlicher Professor in 1903 at Marburg. Already...

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SCHOCKEN, SALMAN

SCHOCKEN, SALMAN (1877–1959), publisher; a bibliophile who derived a fortune from a chain of department stores. Born to a Jewish businessman in Posen, he studied business after attending Volksschule and in 1901 founded Zwickau's famous I. Schocken So¨hne with his brother Simon. Focusing on quality control and low prices, the enterprise evolved by 1930 into nineteen stores with six thousand employees and annual...

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SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF, KARL

SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF, KARL, born Karl Schmidt (1884–1976), artist; a leader in the Expressionist* movement whose sharply angular style is best represented by his woodcuts. Born in the town of Rottluff bei Chemnitz, he adopted the name of his birthplace while attending Gymnasium. He accompanied Erich Heckel in 1905 to study architecture at Dresden's Technische Hochschule. Together with Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Fritz Bleyl, the...

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SCHMIDT, ROBERT

SCHMIDT, ROBERT (1864–1943), politician and trade-union* official; a perpetual Economics Minister during the Republic. Born to working-class circumstances in Berlin,* he apprenticed as a piano maker. After he joined the SPD, he was an official during 1890–1893 in the pianomakers' union, a position he retained when the pianomakers were absorbed by the woodworkers' union. He was an editor for Vorwa¨rts* until his 1902...

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SCHLEMMER, OSKAR

SCHLEMMER, OSKAR (1888–1943), artist; impossible to link with any medium or style, his geometric images, noted for pure and rational depiction, reflect the functional quality of Bauhaus* art. Born in Stuttgart, he trained as a draftsman for inlaid work. Following a semester at Stuttgart's Kunstgewerbeschule, he studied randomly from 1906 until the outbreak of World War I at the city's Kunstakademie, passing much...

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SCHLANGE-SCHONINGEN, HANS

SCHLANGE-SCHONINGEN, HANS (1886–1960), politician; deputy chairman of the DNVP during 1926–1928 and Osthilfe* Commissioner under Heinrich Bru¨ning.* The son of a prosperous landowner, he was born on the Scho¨ningen estate in Pomerania. After attending a cadet academy, he was an officer in World War I. A committed conservative and monarchist in the war's aftermath, he represented the DNVP in the Prussian Landtag during...

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SCHAFFER, HANS

SCHAFFER, HANS (1886–1967), bureaucrat; State Secretary in the Finance Ministry during the early years of the depression.* Born to a Jewish industrialist in Breslau (now Poland's* Wroclaw), he studied economics and history before taking a doctorate in law. He had founded a legal practice in Breslau before he served at the front (1917–1918) in World War I. Although Scha¨ffer was politically unattached, he...

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SANDER, AUGUST

SANDER, AUGUST (1876–1964), photographer; documented the face of the German people in photographs. He was born near Cologne in the village of Herdorf; his father did carpentry in the region's mines. Destined for a mining career, he received his first camera in 1892 and, with his father's help, built a darkroom and began taking photographs. While he was in the army (1896– 1898),...

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SALOMON, ERNST VON

SALOMON, ERNST VON (1902–1972), Freikorps* member and writer; linked to the conspiracy to kill Walther Rathenau.* He was born in Kiel; his forebears came from Venice in the early 1800s. Quickly absorbing Prussian tradition, the Salomons were well known for their military officers when Ernst was born. Too young to participate in World War I, he attended cadet school and joined the Freikorps...

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ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ

ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ (1886–1929), religious existentialist; organized the Freies Ju¨dische Lehrhaus (Free Jewish School) in 1920. Born in Kassel to a respected manufacturer of dyestuffs, he studied medicine (passing his Physikum in 1907), history (with Friedrich Meinecke*), and philosophy (with Heinrich Rickert*) during 1905–1912. Berlin* awarded his doctorate in 1912 for a thesis on Hegel's political thought (published in 1920 as Hegel und der...

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REMARQUE, ERICH MARIA

REMARQUE, ERICH MARIA, born Erich Paul Remark (1898–1970), writer; best known for his antiwar novel All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues). He was born to a bookbinder in Osnabru¨ck. His future seemed fixed in his sixteenth year by the onset of World War I. Completing emergency exams (Notabitur) at eighteen, he enlisted in the army. His role at...

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REICHSBANNER

REICHSBANNER ‘‘Schwarz-Rot-Gold.'' Organized in Magdeburg on 22 February 1924 as a self-protection unit for republican-minded veterans, the Reichsbanner was soon the paramilitary arm (Kampfbund) of the Weimar Coalition.* It was created by six members of the SPD and one each from the DDP and the Center* Party; its founding spirits were Otto Ho¨rsing, Oberpra¨sident of Prussian Saxony* (1920–1927), and Karl Ho¨ltermann, senior editor...

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RAUSCHER, ULRICH

RAUSCHER, ULRICH (1884–1930), journalist and diplomat; served as Minister to Poland* from 1922 until his death in December 1930. Born to a Gymnasium professor in Stuttgart, he studied law and completed his legal training in Strassburg. Fluent in French, he scrapped a legal career in 1910 to work as the Frankfurter Zeitung's Strassburg correspondent; from 1913 he wrote also for Ma¨rz, a monthly...

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PROTECTION OF YOUTH AGAINST TRASH AND FILTH, LAW FOR THE

PROTECTION OF YOUTH AGAINST TRASH AND FILTH, LAW FOR THE (Schund- und Schmutzgesetz). Through Article 118 the Weimar Constitution* permitted special measures to regulate film* distribution, to counter ‘‘trash and filth literature,'' and to protect youth from depraved exhibitions. Guided by Germany's churches and represented politically by the Center Party* and the DNVP, lay groups entered into coalition in November 1924 to form the...

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PISCATOR, ERWIN

PISCATOR, ERWIN (1893–1966), theater* director and playwright; best known for his concept of political theater. He was born in the village of Ulm, near Wetzlar, to a local pastor; the family soon moved to Marburg. In 1913 he began studies in art history and philosophy at Munich; however, he was soon drawn to the stage. In the summer...

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PFULF, ANTONIE

PFULF, ANTONIE (1877–1933), politician; advocated equal rights for women* and abolition of Germany's death penalty. Born in Metz to a Bavarian army officer, she studied pedagogy during 1896–1902 and thereafter taught in Upper Bavaria.* In 1902 she joined the SPD. In 1910, while living in Munich, she was forced by illness into an extended leave of absence. During World War I she did...

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PFEFFER VON SALOMON, FRANZ

PFEFFER VON SALOMON, FRANZ (1888–1968), Freikorps* leader; head of the SA.* Born in Du¨sseldorf, he apparently dropped the last part of his name (von Salomon) out of sensitivity to anti-Semitic* opinion (he irregularly used ‘‘von''). Holding the army rank of captain at the end of World War I, he created the Westphalian Freikorps* (also known as the Pfeffer Freikorps) and was active in...

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PECHEL, RUDOLF

PECHEL, RUDOLF (1882–1961), publicist; as editor of Deutsche Rundschau, a strong neoconservative influence on Berlin's* intellectual life. Born in the Mecklenburg village of Gu¨strow, he took a doctorate in German studies before joining the staff of Weimar's Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv. After a subsequent posting with the Ma¨rkisches Museum in Berlin, he began writing for the biweekly Literarisches Echo in 1912. He met Julius...

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