POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Greek A female serpent born of the Earth. The goddess Hera sent Python to torment her rival Leto, one of the many loves of Zeus, and the mother of Apollo. The young Apollo slew the Python and bid the serpent to rot where it had fallen. The spot where this encounter took place was called Pytho, from the Greek word pytho, "to rot." The...

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Pythian Games

Greek A sacred rite enacted in ancient Greece to honor the ancient serpentmonster, Python, slain by the god Apollo. It was one of the great Hellenic festivals celebrated in Delphi, second only to the Olympic Games in importance....

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Greek Daughter of Epimetheus; wife of Deucalion. Together Pyrrha and Deucalion repeopled the Earth after the great rain sent by Zeus....

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Greek Son of Belus, a sculptor from Cyprus who despised women but adored the goddess Aphrodite. He made an ivory statue of her of such extraordinary beauty that he fell in love with it. As he embraced the statue, Aphrodite answered his prayers and made the statue come to life, giving it the name Galatea (3). This story, from Ovid's Metamorphoses, enhances the legendary...

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(Pygmies) Greek A mythological race of very short people, only 13.5 inches tall, found mostly in ancient Greek folklore but also mentioned often in the stories of the great gods. The pygmaei lived by a stream which most sources say was in Egypt, though others say it was in Thrace or India. They wore their hair very long and did not wear clothes. These...

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(Soul) Greek A mortal woman so beautiful that the goddess Aphrodite was jealous of her and ordered Eros to punish her....

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Greek A minor but ancient sea god who served Poseidon. Proteus had enormous knowledge and the ability to change his shape at will if he did not want to stay around to answer questions. When finally cornered, he advised Menelaus, whose ship was becalmed off the coast of Egypt, that to escape he should pay proper honor to the god Zeus. Menelaus listened to the...

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Greek A hero from Thessaly, son of Iphicles; husband of Laodamia. Protesilaus was the first of the Greeks to spring ashore at Troy (see Trojan War) and the first to die. Laodamia begged the gods to allow Protesilaus to return to Earth so that they might spend three more hours together. The gods granted her wish and the lovers were reunited. Then Laodamia committed suicide...

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Roman Queen of the Underworld (2) and the consort or wife of Dis, the Roman god of the underworld. The Romans believed Proserpina had power over growing plants and honored her as a springtime goddess. Proserpina was an ancient goddess of Italian origins. The people of Rome honored her and Dis in games held about every 100 years. Some scholars see Proserpina as the simple...

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(Forethought) Greek One of the Titans, descended from the Earth Mother (Gaia) and the Sky Father (Uranus); son of Iapetus and one of the daughters of Oceanus, possibly Clymene; brother of Atlas and Epimetheus; father of Deucalion. Prometheus was a remarkable figure in Greek mythology. Some stories say that he was the creator of man. He was certainly the main champion of humankind, bringing the gift...

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Greek An ancient god of fertility, protector of herds, bees, fish, and the vine. Priapus was a latecomer to Greek mythology. In most accounts, Priapus was the son of Dionysus and Aphrodite. In others, his mother was Chione and his father Dionysus, Adonis, Hermes, or Pan. Though his parentage may be in doubt, it is certain that Priapus was associated with the ancient Greek...

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Greek King of Troy during the Trojan War, though too old to take an active part in the war. He was the son of Laomedon and, some say, the father of 50 children, some of them with his second wife, Hecuba. Among them were the Trojan heroes Hector and Paris and the prophetess Cassandra. The death of Hector and the lack of respect...

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Greek Sea god and one of the Olympian gods; son of Cronus and Rhea; brother of Zeus, Hades, Demeter, Hera, and Hestia; husband The Roman goddess Pomona displays her fruits of plenty in the painting by French artist Nicholas Fouche (1653-1733). of Amphitrite. The Romans identified Poseidon with Neptune, an Italian water god. Although Poseidon is best known as a sea god, in ancient times among...

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(Pontos) Greek An ancient sea god; the first sea god. Pontus was the son of the great Earth goddess Gaia. Some sources say he had no father, but came forth from his mother through her own will. Others say that Ether, the god of the pure upper air, was his father. Gaia mated with Pontus. Their children were Ceto, Phorcys, Thaumas, Nereus, and Eurybia, though...

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Roman The young, beautiful Roman goddess of fruit trees and fruit. Her Latin name means "fruit" or "apple." Little is known of Pomona. She is considered one of the lesser goddesses, but she did have her own priests who were responsible only for her care and worship. Romans also dedicated to her a sacred grove that lay 12 miles outside of the city. In...

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Greek The savage, one-eyed giant of Homer's Odyssey. Polyphemus entraps the hero, Odysseus, and his companions, and devours six of them. Odysseus blinds Polyphemus's one eye and with great cunning escapes. Homer's Polyphemus is identified with the Cyclopes, who were supposed to have one eye in the middle of their foreheads and live on the island of Sicily. Polyphemus appears also in Virgil's Aeneid as...

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Greek King of the island of Seriphos, protector of Danae and her son, Perseus. Polydectes sent Perseus on a dangerous mission, asking him to bring back the head of the Gorgon Medusa, which turned men to stone. While Perseus was away, Polydectes pursued Danae, trying to win her love. Danae was protected by Dictys, who was possibly the brother of Polydectes. Perseus returned with the head...

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Greek Son of Demeter and Iasion, son of Zeus and Electra (2); god of wealth and of the Earth's abundant harvests. (He is not to be confused with Pluto, god of the Underworld.) Plutus was believed to be blind because he distributed wealth to good and bad alike. Plutus appears in Hesiod's Theogony, Aristophanes' Plutus, and the Divine Comedy of Italian poet Dante (1265–1321)....

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Greek and Roman A name used to refer to the god of the underworld. Pluto was a euphemism, a substitute name, for this much-feared god. In Greece, Pluto referred to Hades. In Rome, after Greek mythology came to strongly influence its religions, people used Pluto to refer to Dis or Orcus. People developed this alternative name to protect themselves from this dangerous god...

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Greek Daughter of the Titans Oceanus and Tethys; a nymph, one of the eldest among the thousands of daughters born of this union who were themselves considered by many writers to be Titans. Pleione and her sisters were guardians of bodies of water. She was the consort of Atlas and with him the mother of the Pleiades. Pleione means "to increase in number." Some scholars...

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(Sailing Ones) Greek Seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, one of the Oceanids; sisters of the Hyades. Their names were Alcyone, Asterope, Celaene, Electra, Maia (1), Merope, and Taygete. They were placed among the stars to save them from being pursued by Orion. They are sometimes called "the Seven Sisters." Astronomically, the Pleiades is a cluster of stars easily seen in the Taurus constellation. One...

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Greek Son of Zeus and Dia, the wife of Ixion; king of the Lapiths, a mythical people inhabiting the mountains of Thessaly; friend of the hero Theseus. Pirithoüs married Hippodameia. At the wedding feast, to which the Centaurs had been invited, a great fight broke out between the Lapiths and the Centaurs, wild creatures that were half man and half horse. The Lapiths and...

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(518–438 b.c.) Greek The great lyric poet of ancient Greece. He was born near Thebes into a distinguished family. When he was 20 years old, another noble family commissioned Pindar to write a poem in honor of one of their sons, who won the footrace at the Pythian Games held at Delphi. Pindar's fame dates from then. He was asked to write more...

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Un peintre, disciple de Seurat, applique à la décoration d'une grande surface la technique du petit point, et la réussite est parfaite. Deux amoureux, indifférents aux reflets du bassin et aux petits voiliers d'enfants, cheminent pensivement, avec un air un peu triste. Les modèles sont le fils de l'artiste et sa jeune femme. ...

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C'est parce que sa vue faiblissait que, au début du siècle, Maillol se mit à la sculpture. Il nous a cependant laissé quelques belles toiles, imprégnées de la modernité postimpressionniste. Il est probable que Maillol a réalisé cette oeuvre à la même époque qu'une grande fresque décorative aujourd'hui perdue, Loin de la ville. «Au cours d'un séjour à Fécamp,...

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