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Alchemy

The practice of using chemical experiments or processes for such purposes as making potions of immortality or transmuting commoner metals into gold. Alchemy was widespread in the Middle Ages and early modern times in Europe, China, and elsewhere. In Europe a supreme goal of the practice was isolating what was called the "philosopher's stone," which was believed to give eternal life. Alchemy was intertwined with...

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Akhenaton

(ruled approx. 1350–1334 B.C.E.) a king of Egypt He is remembered for changes he made to EGYPTIAN RELIGION. When Akhenaton came to the throne, Egyptian religion focused on the WORSHIP of the god AMON-Re. In the sixth year of his reign, however, Akhenaton made the Aton or sun's disk the central god of Egypt. He changed his name from Amenhotep to Akhenaton, "Servant of the...

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Ahimsa

Sanskrit word for "non-injury"; a central ethical principle in the religion of JAINISM. Many Hindus and Buddhists also teach ahimsa. Jains believe that any injury to another being produces KARMA and binds people to the world of rebirth. Therefore, Jains avoid injuring others as much as possible. As a result, they act out of a supreme respect for life. At a minimum Jains adopt a...

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Agni

God of fi re in the VEDA. Vedic HINDUISM— a form of Hinduism that scholars often suggest entered India from the northwest around 1500 B.C.E.—centers upon performing SACRIFICES. As a result, the fi re into which sacrifi ces are made assumes tremendous importance. It is worshipped as the god Agni. In the sacrifi cial grounds three fi res represent Agni in the three levels...

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Aga Khan

Persian for "great commander"; the title of the leader of the Nizari Ismaili community in ISLAM. The Aga Khan is the IMAM or inspired leader of a community in SHI'ITE ISLAM known as the Nizari Ismaili community. Aga Khan I (1800–81) received the designation from the shah of Persia in 1817. Later he rebelled against one of the shah's successors and immigrated to India....

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Afterlife in world religions

Belief in continuing life after death. Most religions hold that there exists an afterlife. The way in which this afterlife is pictured varies greatly among the world's religions. Some envision a shadowy other world or one similar to this one; some see eternal reward or punishment in HEAVEN or HELL; some believe in REINCARNATION (or coming back to be born again) in human or animal...

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African religions

The indigenous religions of Africa. This entry discusses African religions south of the Sahara Desert. North of the Sahara ISLAM has been the dominant religion since the 600s C.E. People have lived in Africa for tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of years. Indeed, many believe that the genus Homo fi rst evolved in Africa. Hominid bones found at Olduvai Gorge in Kenya from 1959...

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African-American religions

The religions of people of African descent living in the Western Hemisphere. African Americans have had and continue to have a vibrant and rich religious life. African-American religions in the Caribbean and South America often preserve and adapt African traditions (see AFRICAN RELIGIONS). Good examples are VOODOO from Haiti, SANTERÍA from Cuba, Candomble in Brazil, and Winti in Suriname. They often combine African and European practices. This...

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INDIGENOUS AFRICAN CHURCHES

Another set of churches had no historical relationship with previously established Christian churches. African prophets started them. They go by various names: African indigenous churches, African independent churches, African-initiated churches, and African-instituted churches. The prophets who started these churches emphasized the ability to control spirits and heal by the power of Jesus. They offered protection against witchcraft. They also urged people to abandon traditional African religions and to...

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ETHIOPIAN AND SEPARATIST CHURCHES

Compared with activities in the Americas and Asia, European colonization of Africa began relatively late, in the 1870s. In the 19th century, North American and European, especially British, Christians took missionary work very seriously (see MISSIONARIES). They also took their own superiority for granted, and they acted in ways that made their racist attitudes and presuppositions all too apparent. Many Africans found the message of...

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New religious movements in Africa

Religious movements that have arisen in Africa starting in the late 19th century. In the past one and a quarter centuries Africans have started thousands of religious movements. The name "new religious movements" may give the wrong impression. Most African new religious movements are actually forms of CHRISTIANITY. North Americans and Europeans have called them "new" because Africans who rejected European and North American control developed and led...

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Adonis

An ancient Greek god. The Greeks knew Adonis as a god who was imported from the ancient Near East. His name seems to bear out this idea. It seems related to the Semitic word adon, which means "lord." Adonis fi gured prominently in The Golden Bough, a well-known collection of mythology by James George FRAZER. According to Frazer, Adonis was a typical god of vegetation....

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Adi Granth

Punjabi for "fi rst book"; the sacred book of the Sikhs. It is also known as the Guru Granth Sahib. The Adi Granth contains almost 6,000 hymns written by Sikh GURUs and other SAINTS (see SIKHISM). The hymns are mostly arranged according to the musical modes in which they are sung. The fi rst and third gurus, NANAK and Amar Das (1479–1574), made collections of...

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Adam

The first human being in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic tradition. The name Adam may also be translated simply as "the man." The BIBLE seems to link this name to adamah, Hebrew for ground (Genesis 2.7). As told in the second chapter of Genesis, the Lord GOD formed Adam from the Earth's dirt, breathed life into him, and placed him in the garden of Eden....

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Acts of the Apostles

The fi fth book of the NEW TESTAMENT. The Acts of the Apostles—commonly referred to simply as Acts—continues the Gospel of Luke. Together, they make up a two-part work. The gospel tells the story of Jesus; Acts tells the story of the early Christian church from Jesus' resurrection to the arrival and missionary activity of the Apostle PAUL in Rome. The fi rst part...

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Abraham

(Arabic, Ibrahim) Legendary ancestor of Jews and Arabs, also revered by Christians and all Muslims. The BIBLE presents an image of Abraham that roughly corresponds to the way of life common in Canaan between 2000 and 1600 B.C.E. According to the Bible, Abraham left the city of Ur in Mesopotamia and traveled to the land of Canaan. In fulfi llment of a promise from GOD,...

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Abortion and religion

The intentional destruction by medical means of a human fetus in the womb prior to birth—a highly controversial ethical issue for many religious people since it means the taking of present or potential human life. On one side are those, calling themselves "pro-life," who hold that a fetus is a person and that abortion therefore is murder. This is the view offi cially taken by,...

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Aaron

Brother of MOSES in the Hebrew BIBLE. According to the Bible, GOD appeared to Moses in the desert and appointed him to free the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt (see EXODUS). Moses objected that he had no public speaking abilities, so God appointed his older brother Aaron as his assistant (Exodus 4). Aaron was instrumental in bringing about the various plagues that eventually...

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Catalogues raisonnés de l'oeuvre de Cézanne

  Venturi L., Cézanne, son art, son oeuvre Paris, 1936 Chappuis A., The Drawings of Paul Cézanne, a catalogue raisonné, Londres, 1 973 Rewald J., Paul Cézanne, the Watercolours, Londres, 1983 Rewald J., New Catalogue Raisonné of Cézanne's Paintings. À paraître, New York, 1996 Principaux ouvrages et articles Adriani G., Cézanne : aquarelles,...

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Achille Emperaire de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

Cézanne rencontre le peintre aixois Achille Emperaire (1829-1898) non pas dans le Midi mais à Paris, à l'académie Suisse, où tous deux travaillent sur le modèle. Peintre sans le sou, de surcroît affligé d'un physique disgracieux, Emperaire est à plusieurs reprises aidé par son compatriote. En peignant cette effigie monumentale, Cézanne transforme le pauvre paria en héros, à...

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Carrefour de la rue Rémy à Auvers de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

Pendant son premier séjour à Auvers-sur-Oise en 1873, Cézanne réalise plusieurs vues du pittoresque village avec ses chaumières à l'échiné fatiguée et ses maisons aux toits de tuiles rutilantes. Tantôt il s'éloigne de la bourgade pour peindre une vue générale des maisons et de la campagne alentour, tantôt il plante son chevalet dans une ruelle du village pour...

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L'Estaque, vue du golfe de Marseille de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

Note : 5.1/10

L'Estaque au temps de Cézanne était un bourg très actif en raison de la présence d'une vingtaine de fabriques de tuiles et de briques. Situé à une dizaine de kilomètres du centre de Marseille, il apparaît aujourd'hui comme un faubourg de la cité phocéenne. Le premier séjour du peintre dans ce village, distant d'une trentaine de kilomètres seulement...

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Rochers près des grottes au-dessus de Château-Noir de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

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Après la mort de sa mère, survenue en 1897, le jas de Bouffan est vendu et Cézanne travaille sur de nouveaux sites, Château noir et la carrière de Bibémus. Pour ces paysages de forêts et de rochers, il choisit un cadrage serré qui donne l'impression d'un envahissement complet de la toile par le motif et d'une fusion des...

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Une moderne Olympia de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

Note : 5.1/10

En imaginant Olympia dans une nouvelle mise en scène, libre parodie du tableau de Manet qui avait fait scandale en 1865, Cézanne se déclare doublement. Il manifeste sa filiation avec le chef de file de l'« École des Batignolles » mais, plus encore, son intention de le dépasser. Son Olympia, qu'il qualifie de moderne, en dit suffisamment long...

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La femme étranglée de Cézanne (analyse du tableau)

Note : 5.1/10

Avant de découvrir la peinture révolutionnaire de Courbet et de Manet, le jeune Aixois se plie modestement aux contraintes d'un apprentissage obscur. Obscur dans toute l'acception du terme, par l'anonymat et la solitude qu'il connaît pendant les premiers mois de son séjour dans la capitale en 1861 et par le choix d'une palette sombre pour ses toiles, «...

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