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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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WARBURG, ABY

WARBURG, ABY (1866–1929), cultural historian; employed his family's banking fortune to amass a superb library of art history. Born the eldest of seven children to the Hamburg banker Moritz Warburg, he was raised in an orthodox Jewish home. Although he broke with Judaism, he never embraced Christianity and remained proud of his heritage. A student of art history, he took a doctorate (writing...

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WALTER, BRUNO

WALTER, BRUNO, born Bruno Walter Schlesinger (1876–1962), conductor; the last great exponent of German romanticism. Born in Berlin,* he began studying music* at the Stern Conservatory in that city when he was eight. Although he gave a piano recital at age nine, the next year he decided on a conducting career. He was engaged at seventeen by the Cologne Opera and went...

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THYSSEN, FRITZ

THYSSEN, FRITZ (1873–1951), industrialist; the most important business leader to support Hitler* before 1933. Born in Styrum, near Mu¨lheim, he was the eldest son of August Thyssen, founder of the August-Thyssenhu¨tte in Oberhausen. After studying engineering, he joined the firm in 1898 as its ‘‘crown prince''; his father, in his eighties when he died, refused to yield control before his death (1926). Fritz,...

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THULE SOCIETY

THULE SOCIETY (Thule Gesellschaft). Among the obscure threads that were drawn together to form the NSDAP, few have gained more notice than the Thule Society. Founded in Munich on 17 August 1918 by Rudolf von Sebottendorff and Walter Nauhaus, it was initially a cover for the Germanen Orden, a racist league whose Munich branch was founded in 1913. Seeking ‘‘German-blooded, serious men of...

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THE THREEPENNY OPERA

THE THREEPENNY OPERA (Die Dreigroschenoper). In 1928 the new intendant of the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Ernst-Josef Aufricht, chanced upon Elisabeth Hauptmann's translation of The Beggar's Opera. Originally written in 1728 by John Gay, the work had recently enjoyed a two-year run on the London stage. With support from Erich Engel,* Aufricht convinced Bertolt Brecht* and Kurt Weill* to reconstruct Hauptmann's draft as a...

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TARNOW, FRITZ

TARNOW, FRITZ (1880–1951), trade-union* leader; championed economic democracy (Wirtschaftsdemokratie) as a bridge from capitalism to socialism. Born to a cabinetmaker in the Westphalian village of Rehme, he apprenticed as a carpenter and joined the woodworkers' union in 1900. Settling in Berlin* in 1903, he studied at the trade-union school and was soon prominent in his union's central committee. During 1908–1909 he polished his...

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STERNHEIM, CARL

STERNHEIM, CARL (1878–1942), dramatist; applauded in the Republic's early years for his plays satirizing bourgeois society. Born in Leipzig to a Jewish banker and theater* critic, he grew up in Berlin* and resolved in his teens to become a writer. After broad studies during 1897–1901, he spent much of the next two decades developing a literary style. In 1907, after marrying the...

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STAMPFER, FRIEDRICH

STAMPFER, FRIEDRICH (1874–1957), journalist and politician; editor of Vorwa¨rts,* the SPD's flagship newspaper.* Born to a German-Jewish family in the Moravian capital of Bru¨nn (now the Czech city of Brno), he was raised in the Habsburg Empire. He was already interested in socialism and journalism while in Gymnasium and began working for Leipzig's Volkszeitung, a socialist newspaper, while studying at the city's university....

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STAHLHELM

STAHLHELM; Germany's largest postwar veterans' organization. Founded by Franz Seldte* on Christmas Day, 1918, the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, began with three basic principles: comradeship, support of law and order, and reconstruction. Although it was opposed to the November Revolution,* it was initially neither reactionary nor antirepublican. Membership was open to socialists and Jews* so long as they had served a minimum of...

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SPENGLER, OSWALD

SPENGLER, OSWALD (1880–1936), cultural philosopher; famous for the portentous metaphysical essay Der Untergang des Abendlandes (The Decline of the West), he was deemed ‘‘the philosopher of pessimism'' (he rejected the label). Born to a middle-class home (his father was a postal clerk) in the town of Blankenburg am Harz, he pursued broad studies in mathematics, philosophy, science, and history. After taking a doctorate...

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SOLLMANN, WILHELM

SOLLMANN, WILHELM (1881–1951), politician and journalist; one of the SPD's pragmatists, he regularly sponsored collaboration with the moderate bourgeois parties. Born to a middle-class home in the village of Oberlind, near Coburg, he completed a business apprenticeship in Cologne and attended the local Handelshochschule. In 1907, soon after joining the SPD, he founded a youth group, Freie Jugend Ko¨ln. Shifting his attention to...

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SIMONS, WALTER

SIMONS, WALTER (1861–1937), judge; served as President of the Supreme Court (1922–1929). Born in Elberfeld (now in Wuppertal) to a family long involved in silk weaving, he was raised in a pious Lutheran milieu. After eclectic studies, he began a legal career in 1888 with the Prussian civil service.* He served during 1897–1905 as a district judge in Meiningen and then became regional...

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SEISSER, HANS RITTER VON

SEISSER, HANS RITTER VON (1874–1973), military and police officer; chief of Bavaria's* State Police (Landespolizei) during the Beerhall Putsch.* A colonel at the end of World War I, he was Munich's commander after its liberation from the Ra¨terepublik and then left the army to head the Landespolizei. Renowned for his actions against leftist agitators, he protected Hermann Ehrhardt* when the latter fled to...

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SEIDEL, INA

SEIDEL, INA (1885–1974), poet and novelist; best known for Das Wunschkind (The wish child), the 1930 story of the relationship between a boy and his widowed mother during the Prussian Wars of Liberation. Born in Halle to a well-known literary family, she cultivated an interest in literature. She was raised in Braunschweig, Marburg, and, after her father's early death, Munich. The trauma of...

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SCHUCKING, WALTHER

SCHUCKING, WALTHER (1875–1935), jurist, politician, and professor; a pacifist who served on The Hague's International Court of Justice. Born in Mu¨nster, he was raised in a family of scholars and took a doctorate in 1899 in international law and German legal history. He was named Privatdozent in 1900 at Breslau (now Poland's* Wroclaw) and was appointed ordentlicher Professor in 1903 at Marburg. Already...

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SCHOCKEN, SALMAN

SCHOCKEN, SALMAN (1877–1959), publisher; a bibliophile who derived a fortune from a chain of department stores. Born to a Jewish businessman in Posen, he studied business after attending Volksschule and in 1901 founded Zwickau's famous I. Schocken So¨hne with his brother Simon. Focusing on quality control and low prices, the enterprise evolved by 1930 into nineteen stores with six thousand employees and annual...

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SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF, KARL

SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF, KARL, born Karl Schmidt (1884–1976), artist; a leader in the Expressionist* movement whose sharply angular style is best represented by his woodcuts. Born in the town of Rottluff bei Chemnitz, he adopted the name of his birthplace while attending Gymnasium. He accompanied Erich Heckel in 1905 to study architecture at Dresden's Technische Hochschule. Together with Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and Fritz Bleyl, the...

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SCHMIDT, ROBERT

SCHMIDT, ROBERT (1864–1943), politician and trade-union* official; a perpetual Economics Minister during the Republic. Born to working-class circumstances in Berlin,* he apprenticed as a piano maker. After he joined the SPD, he was an official during 1890–1893 in the pianomakers' union, a position he retained when the pianomakers were absorbed by the woodworkers' union. He was an editor for Vorwa¨rts* until his 1902...

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SCHLEMMER, OSKAR

SCHLEMMER, OSKAR (1888–1943), artist; impossible to link with any medium or style, his geometric images, noted for pure and rational depiction, reflect the functional quality of Bauhaus* art. Born in Stuttgart, he trained as a draftsman for inlaid work. Following a semester at Stuttgart's Kunstgewerbeschule, he studied randomly from 1906 until the outbreak of World War I at the city's Kunstakademie, passing much...

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SCHLANGE-SCHONINGEN, HANS

SCHLANGE-SCHONINGEN, HANS (1886–1960), politician; deputy chairman of the DNVP during 1926–1928 and Osthilfe* Commissioner under Heinrich Bru¨ning.* The son of a prosperous landowner, he was born on the Scho¨ningen estate in Pomerania. After attending a cadet academy, he was an officer in World War I. A committed conservative and monarchist in the war's aftermath, he represented the DNVP in the Prussian Landtag during...

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SCHAFFER, HANS

SCHAFFER, HANS (1886–1967), bureaucrat; State Secretary in the Finance Ministry during the early years of the depression.* Born to a Jewish industrialist in Breslau (now Poland's* Wroclaw), he studied economics and history before taking a doctorate in law. He had founded a legal practice in Breslau before he served at the front (1917–1918) in World War I. Although Scha¨ffer was politically unattached, he...

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SANDER, AUGUST

SANDER, AUGUST (1876–1964), photographer; documented the face of the German people in photographs. He was born near Cologne in the village of Herdorf; his father did carpentry in the region's mines. Destined for a mining career, he received his first camera in 1892 and, with his father's help, built a darkroom and began taking photographs. While he was in the army (1896– 1898),...

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SALOMON, ERNST VON

SALOMON, ERNST VON (1902–1972), Freikorps* member and writer; linked to the conspiracy to kill Walther Rathenau.* He was born in Kiel; his forebears came from Venice in the early 1800s. Quickly absorbing Prussian tradition, the Salomons were well known for their military officers when Ernst was born. Too young to participate in World War I, he attended cadet school and joined the Freikorps...

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ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ

ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ (1886–1929), religious existentialist; organized the Freies Ju¨dische Lehrhaus (Free Jewish School) in 1920. Born in Kassel to a respected manufacturer of dyestuffs, he studied medicine (passing his Physikum in 1907), history (with Friedrich Meinecke*), and philosophy (with Heinrich Rickert*) during 1905–1912. Berlin* awarded his doctorate in 1912 for a thesis on Hegel's political thought (published in 1920 as Hegel und der...

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REMARQUE, ERICH MARIA

REMARQUE, ERICH MARIA, born Erich Paul Remark (1898–1970), writer; best known for his antiwar novel All Quiet on the Western Front (Im Westen nichts Neues). He was born to a bookbinder in Osnabru¨ck. His future seemed fixed in his sixteenth year by the onset of World War I. Completing emergency exams (Notabitur) at eighteen, he enlisted in the army. His role at...

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