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REICHSBANNER

REICHSBANNER ‘‘Schwarz-Rot-Gold.'' Organized in Magdeburg on 22 February 1924 as a self-protection unit for republican-minded veterans, the Reichsbanner was soon the paramilitary arm (Kampfbund) of the Weimar Coalition.* It was created by six members of the SPD and one each from the DDP and the Center* Party; its founding spirits were Otto Ho¨rsing, Oberpra¨sident of Prussian Saxony* (1920–1927), and Karl Ho¨ltermann, senior editor...

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RAUSCHER, ULRICH

RAUSCHER, ULRICH (1884–1930), journalist and diplomat; served as Minister to Poland* from 1922 until his death in December 1930. Born to a Gymnasium professor in Stuttgart, he studied law and completed his legal training in Strassburg. Fluent in French, he scrapped a legal career in 1910 to work as the Frankfurter Zeitung's Strassburg correspondent; from 1913 he wrote also for Ma¨rz, a monthly...

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PROTECTION OF YOUTH AGAINST TRASH AND FILTH, LAW FOR THE

PROTECTION OF YOUTH AGAINST TRASH AND FILTH, LAW FOR THE (Schund- und Schmutzgesetz). Through Article 118 the Weimar Constitution* permitted special measures to regulate film* distribution, to counter ‘‘trash and filth literature,'' and to protect youth from depraved exhibitions. Guided by Germany's churches and represented politically by the Center Party* and the DNVP, lay groups entered into coalition in November 1924 to form the...

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PISCATOR, ERWIN

PISCATOR, ERWIN (1893–1966), theater* director and playwright; best known for his concept of political theater. He was born in the village of Ulm, near Wetzlar, to a local pastor; the family soon moved to Marburg. In 1913 he began studies in art history and philosophy at Munich; however, he was soon drawn to the stage. In the summer...

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PFULF, ANTONIE

PFULF, ANTONIE (1877–1933), politician; advocated equal rights for women* and abolition of Germany's death penalty. Born in Metz to a Bavarian army officer, she studied pedagogy during 1896–1902 and thereafter taught in Upper Bavaria.* In 1902 she joined the SPD. In 1910, while living in Munich, she was forced by illness into an extended leave of absence. During World War I she did...

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PFEFFER VON SALOMON, FRANZ

PFEFFER VON SALOMON, FRANZ (1888–1968), Freikorps* leader; head of the SA.* Born in Du¨sseldorf, he apparently dropped the last part of his name (von Salomon) out of sensitivity to anti-Semitic* opinion (he irregularly used ‘‘von''). Holding the army rank of captain at the end of World War I, he created the Westphalian Freikorps* (also known as the Pfeffer Freikorps) and was active in...

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PECHEL, RUDOLF

PECHEL, RUDOLF (1882–1961), publicist; as editor of Deutsche Rundschau, a strong neoconservative influence on Berlin's* intellectual life. Born in the Mecklenburg village of Gu¨strow, he took a doctorate in German studies before joining the staff of Weimar's Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv. After a subsequent posting with the Ma¨rkisches Museum in Berlin, he began writing for the biweekly Literarisches Echo in 1912. He met Julius...

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PAULI, WOLFGANG

PAULI, WOLFGANG (1900–1958), physicist; discovered the exclusion principle, according to which no two electrons can be described as having the same energy state. The son of a chemistry professor at Vienna, he comprehended Albert Einstein's* relativity theory while still in Gymnasium. He studied theoretical physics under Munich's Arnold Sommerfeld and took a doctorate in 1922; next he accompanied fellow student Werner Heisenberg* to...

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PANOFSKY, ERWIN

PANOFSKY, ERWIN (1892–1968), art historian; helped establish Hamburg as a research center in art history. Born in Hamburg, he began studies in law, but switched under the influence of Freiburg's Wilhelm Vo¨ge to art history. He wrote his doctoral thesis in 1914 on Du¨rer's theory of art and completed his Habilitation in 1920 at Hamburg. In 1921 he was entrusted with Hamburg's seminar...

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OLDENBURG-JANUSCHAU, ELARD VON

OLDENBURG-JANUSCHAU, ELARD VON (1855–1937), politician; archetypal Junker* who exercised leverage on Hindenburg* in the Republic's final year. He was born in the West Prussian town of Beisleiden; his family had held estates in both East and West Prussia* since the eighteenth century. Commissioned a Prussian officer in 1874, he was a powerful member of the Bund der Landwirte (Agrarian League) and served as...

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OSSIETZKY, CARL VON

OSSIETZKY, CARL VON (1889–1938), editor and publisher; managed Die Weltbu¨hne* during 1927–1933. He was born in Hamburg to petty bourgeois circumstances; his father (a civil-service* stenographer of Polish origin), died when Carl was two. Despite the ‘‘von'' (whose origin is uncertain), his upbringing was decidedly not aristocratic. He left Gymnasium before graduation and clerked during 1907–1914 for Hamburg's provincial administration. Notwithstanding the poor start,...

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NOVEMBERGRUPPE.

Aroused by the November Revolution* and concerned with publicizing their ideas, several architects, artists, writers, critics, and musicians formed the Novembergruppe on 3 December 1918. Led initially by Max Pechstein and Ce´sar Klein (both painters), the group invited ‘‘Expressionists, Cubists, Futurists'' to produce a new art for a new time. Many members were also associated with the Arbeitsrat fu¨r Kunst.* In all,...

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NATIONAL SOCIALIST FACTORY CELL ORGANIZATION

NATIONAL SOCIALIST FACTORY CELL ORGANIZATION (Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation, NSBO); never a union, the NSBO conducted propaganda activity among workers through the preexisting trade-union* structure. It was instituted as part of the NSDAP in January 1931; its basic framework evolved spontaneously in June 1928 in Berlin's* industrial district. The first leader of the cells was Johannes Engel, a Nazi who was also a factory-council representative. Although...

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NATIONAL BOLSHEVISM.

A nebulous phenomenon, National Bolshevism surfaced in 1919 among members of Hamburg's KPD and recurred at intervals (e.g., 1923 and 1930) throughout the Weimar era. Associated chiefly with the preindustrial Mittelstand,* it was marked by implacable hostility toward the bourgeoisie and enchantment with Russia. Linked variously to the radical Right and Left, it aimed to bridge the gap between political extremes, thus forming...

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MULLER, HERMANN

MULLER, HERMANN (1876–1931), politician; led the Republic's longlived Great Coalition.* He was born in Mannheim to a middle-class home; his father was a factory director. He studied business and then clerked for commercial firms in Frankfurt and Breslau. In 1893 he joined the SPD; he became editor in 1899 of the Go¨rlitzer Volkszeitung and served on the Go¨rlitz city council in 1903–1906. He...

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MUHSAM, ERICH

MUHSAM, ERICH (1878–1934), revolutionary, anarchist, and writer; a ‘‘communist anarchist'' committed to ‘‘Struggle, Revolution, Equality, Freedom.'' Born in Berlin* to a pharmacist, he was attracted to socialism while in Gymnasium; indeed, ‘‘socialist activities'' brought his expulsion. After apprenticing as a pharmacist, he began freelancing in 1901 and joined a bohemian group centered on the journal Neue Gemeinschaft. In the next decade he came under...

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MONARCHISM.

Writing in 1928 about the November Revolution,* August Winnig* stated that ‘‘when the Republic took the place of the Monarchy, nobody opposed the Republic in order to die for the Monarchy'' (Von Klemperer). Despite a mythology regarding the strength of monarchism during the Republic, there were few occasions, outside Bavaria,* when officials needed to fear an attempted restoration. This weakness is surprising given...

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MOLDENHAUER, PAUL

MOLDENHAUER, PAUL (1876–1946), industrial leader and politician; served as Economics and Finance Minister in the last cabinet of Hermann Mu¨ller.* Born to a middle-class family in Cologne, he studied political science before taking a doctorate in law in 1899. After he wrote his Habilitation in 1901 at Cologne's Handelshochschule, he joined the institution's faculty. In 1920 he moved to the University of Cologne....

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MARCKS, GERHARD

MARCKS, GERHARD (1889–1981), sculptor and graphic artist; directed the ceramics studio at the Bauhaus.* He was born to a Berlin* grain merchant. His romantic bent led him into an antitechnology movement. Judging Wilhelmine culture shallow and pathetic, he aligned himself with the Neue Sezession artistic group. After studying with August Gaul and Georg Kolbe, opponents of the Kaiserreich's monumental style, he began sculpting...

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MANNHEIM, KARL

MANNHEIM, KARL (1893–1947), sociologist; helped establish sociology as an academic discipline. Born in Budapest to a Hungarian father and a German mother, he studied philosophy, pedagogy, and German literary history before taking a doctorate at Budapest in 1918 with a thesis analyzing the theory of knowledge (Die Strukturanalyse der Erkenntnistheorie). In 1915–1919 he belonged to the Sunday Circle, a group of intellectuals that...

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MANN, THOMAS

MANN, THOMAS (1875–1955), writer; the premier literary figure of the Weimar era. Born in Lu¨beck to a prosperous businessman and city senator, he began writing small prose works as a youngster. Although he was a mediocre student—he repeated two classes in Gymnasium—his was nonetheless a disciplined intellect that, with superb literary skill, merged profound ideas and humor into loosely autobiographical writings. Abandoning Gymnasium...

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MANN, HEINRICH

MANN, HEINRICH (1871–1950), writer; ruthlessly debunked the Kaiserreich's rigid social structure. Born in Lu¨beck to a city senator and prosperous businessman, he abandoned Gymnasium studies in 1889. Although he was determined not to follow a business career, he appeased his father by apprenticing as a bookseller in Dresden. But after he published stories in the Lu¨becker Zeitung, he resolved to become a writer....

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LEDEBOUR, GEORG

LEDEBOUR, GEORG (1850–1947), politician; prominent figure in the Spartacist Uprising.* Born in Hanover, he lost his parents at an early age. Despite a crippling bone disease, he served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. He joined the Progressive Party after a prolonged sojourn in England (1876–1882) and from 1884 worked as a journalist for the Party's Demokratische Bla¨tter. But frustrated by the Party's...

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LAUE, MAX VON

LAUE, MAX VON, born Max Laue (1879–1960), physicist; founded the field of X-ray structural analysis (crystallography). Born in the village of Pfaffendorf bei Koblenz, he began studying physics in 1898 while fulfilling his military obligation. Specializing in theoretical physics, he developed a parallel interest in optics under the influence of Berlin's Otto Lummer. He took his doctorate in 1903 under Max Planck.* Although Laue...

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LANG, FRITZ

LANG, FRITZ (1890–1976), director; deemed the most ingenious filmmaker of the Weimar era. Born in Vienna, he studied architecture at the city's Technische Hochschule. But an interest in art led him to the Kunstakademie and then to Munich's Kunstgewerbeschule. He ended his studies in 1911 and traveled extensively before settling in Paris in 1913 and working as a painter, fashion designer, and cabaret...

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