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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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GROPIUS, WALTER

GROPIUS, WALTER (1883–1969), architect; director of the Bauhaus.* The son of a Berlin* architect, he began his own architectural studies in 1903 at Munich's Technische Hochschule. During 1906–1907 he constructed the first buildings of his own design for an uncle in Pomerania. While working in Berlin in 1908–1910 as chief assistant to Peter Behrens,* he became friends with Ludwig Mies.* Establishing a practice...

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GORING, HERMANN

GORING, HERMANN (1893–1946), politician; elected Reichstag* President in August 1932. Born in Rosenheim in Upper Bavaria, he was raised in a conservative, middle-class family. His father, a colonial official, convinced him to attend cadet school; thus, when war was declared, he joined an infantry regiment in Mu¨hlhausen in Alsace as a second lieutenant. After rheumatism forced a medical leave, he was...

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GOLTZ, RUDIGER GRAF VON DER

GOLTZ, RUDIGER GRAF VON DER (1865–1946), general; led the Baltic Volunteers in 1919. Born in the Brandenburg town of Zu¨llichau (now Poland's* Sulechow) to a noble family that traced its lineage to 1297 and had produced forty-three generals (nineteen of whom had been awarded the Pour le Me´rite, Prussia's* highest honor), Ru¨diger chose a military career. He began service in World War I...

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GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ

GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ (1880–1977), writer and Zionist; advanced the argument that Germany's Jews* had no home in Europe. After studying German language and literature during 1900–1906, he became editor of the Goldene Klassiker-Bibliothek (Library of golden classics). In 1912 he published an article entitled ‘‘Deutsch-Ju¨discher Parnass'' (‘‘German-Jewish Parnassus''); the piece caused a minor furor. He argued that the Jews were directing German culture, yet had...

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GESSLER, OTTO

GESSLER, OTTO (1875–1955), politician; served as Defense Minister during 1920–1928. Born to a farming family in Ludwigsburg, he studied law before turning to city administration. He was elected Bu¨rgermeister of Regensburg in 1910 and was Nuremberg's Oberbu¨rgermeister during 1913–1919. His prudent wartime administration delivered both Nuremberg and Franconia from much of the chaos, including council rule, that marked the postwar era. A liberal...

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GERMAN STATE PARTY

GERMAN STATE PARTY (Deutsche Staatspartei, DStP); the July 1930 merger of the DDP and the People's National Reich Association (Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung, VNR), the political arm of Jungdo.* Also joining the Party were several Young Liberals (Jungliberalen) from the DVP. According to the merger agreement, Erich Koch-Weser,* chairman of the DDP, would serve as the DStP's Reichstag* faction leader, while Artur Mahraun, chairman of...

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GERMAN STATE PARTY

GERMAN STATE PARTY (Deutsche Staatspartei, DStP); the July 1930 merger of the DDP and the People's National Reich Association (Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung, VNR), the political arm of Jungdo.* Also joining the Party were several Young Liberals (Jungliberalen) from the DVP. According to the merger agreement, Erich Koch-Weser,* chairman of the DDP, would serve as the DStP's Reichstag* faction leader, while Artur Mahraun, chairman of...

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GENEVA PROTOCOL

GENEVA PROTOCOL; aimed at the peaceful resolution of international disputes, it was adopted by the League of Nations in October 1924. This amendment to the League Covenant proposed a broad extension of courts of arbitration and sought to institute the principle whereby signatory states would come to the assistance of any threatened member state. Requiring great-power approval, the protocol was quickly upheld by...

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FULFILLMENT POLICY

FULFILLMENT POLICY (Erfu¨llungspolitik); a German response to the Allied demand, conceived at the Spa Conference* of July 1920, that Germany ‘‘fulfill'' the terms of the Versailles Treaty.* In reality, the policy awaited the London Ultimatum of 5 May 1921. Finding Germany ‘‘in default in the fulfillment of the [treaty] obligations'' with respect to disarmament, the reparations* payment due on 1 May, and ‘‘the...

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FROELICH, CARL

FROELICH, CARL (1875–1953), director; a pioneer of film* as mass entertainment. Born in Berlin,* he studied electronics and engineering before his appointment as an engineer with an electrical firm. He was early enamored of motion pictures, and his background gave him insight into the running of a film studio. When Oskar Messter offered him a technical position in 1903 with the Messterfilm Company,...

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FRANK, HANS

FRANK, HANS (1900–1946), jurist and politician; founded the League of National Socialist German Jurists. Born in Karlsruhe, he volunteered for the army in the final year of World War I. Service with the Epp Freikorps* in early 1919 was followed by memberships in such nationalist circles as the Thule Society* and the German Workers' Party. He began studies the same year in law...

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FEMEGERICHT

FEMEGERICHT (Feme justice). In medieval Germany vigilante groups, distressed by the era's ineffective legal system, assumed responsibility for swift justice.* The practice was known as Femegericht (also Vehmgericht), roughly equivalent to ‘‘folk justice.'' During the unstable early years of the Republic (especially 1920–1922), the more radical of the Freikorps* units revived Femegericht to dispense with those whom they deemed traitors. Although Hermann Ehrhardt's* Organisation...

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FACTORY COUNCIL LAW

FACTORY COUNCIL LAW (Betriebsrategesetz); a product of the Workers' and Soldiers' Councils* of the November Revolution,* it was introduced in the National Assembly* on 21 August 1919. Article 165 of the new Constitution* gave workers and salaried employees the minimal hope of creating factory councils for the defense and promotion of economic interests. The law, designed to make reality of this hope, required...

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EUPEN-MALMEDY AFFAIR.

The districts of Eupen and Malme´dy lie just south of Aachen on the Belgian border. Part of Prussia's* western territories for a century, they were transferred to Belgium by the Versailles Treaty.* Although a majority of the area's 60,000 people retained an allegiance to Germany, and while Versailles called for ‘‘popular consultation'' in the event of a change of sovereignty, a proposed...

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ERNST, MAX

ERNST, MAX (1891–1976), painter, illustrator, and sculptor; member of Cologne's Dada* circle and a founder of French Surrealism. Born in Bru¨ hl, as a young man (1908–1911) he studied philosophy and psychology, training himself as an artist in his spare time. Aroused by Nietzsche's philosophy and van Gogh's art, he was attracted to Expressionism,* joined Junge Rheinland, and began painting in earnest in...

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ENABLING ACT

ENABLING ACT (Erma¨chtigungsgesetz); a term generally reserved for the Reichstag* vote of 23 March 1933 abrogating the legislative function and granting Hitler* dictatorial powers for a period of four years. Only the ninety-four Social Democrats attending the session dissented; the seventy-two Center Party* deputies could have blocked passage. The vote was constitutional because it was based on a provision contained in Article 76...

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EINSTEIN, ALBERT

EINSTEIN, ALBERT (1879–1955), physicist; postulated the theory of the relativity of mass. Born in Ulm, he spent much of his early life in Munich. Averse to classroom regimentation, he withdrew from school at fifteen, relinquished his citizenship, and joined his parents in Milan. He soon relocated to Switzerland, where, upon completing Gymnasium in 1901, he took Swiss citizenship. In rapid succession he wrote...

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EICHHORN, EMIL

EICHHORN, EMIL (1863–1925), politician; served as Berlin's* police chief during the November Revolution.* Born in Ro¨hrsdorf near Chemnitz, he was a mechanic in a metalworking factory before becoming a paid official with the SPD. Serving concurrently in the Baden Landtag (1901–1909) and the Reichstag* (1903–1912), he was initially counted among the SPD's moderates, but gravitated toward the radicals. During the war he organized...

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EBERMAYER, LUDWIG

EBERMAYER, LUDWIG (1858–1933), judge; chief justice and leading prosecutor on the Republic's Supreme Court. Born in No¨rdlingen, he studied law before working during 1883–1902 as a lawyer and judge in Bavaria.* Appointed to the Supreme Court (Reichsgericht) in 1902, he became chief justice in 1918. Upon retiring in 1926, he remained in Leipzig, assuming an honorary professorate at the university. He was the...

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DOBLIN, ALFRED

DOBLIN, ALFRED (1878–1957), novelist, essayist, and physician; known chiefly for the novel Berlin Alexanderplatz. Born into a Jewish family in Stettin, he spent a lonely childhood in Berlin* after his father, proprietor of a tailor shop, fled to America with a shop seamstress; the episode was crucial to his later writing. After earning a medical degree in 1905, he briefly was an...

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DIX, OTTO

DIX, OTTO (1891–1969), artist; best known for his harsh portraits of postwar German society. Born in Untermhaus, near Gera, he studied art privately in 1905–1909 while working in Gera as a decorator's apprentice. His artistic training began in 1909 at Dresden's Technische Hochschule; he remained in the Saxon capital for five years. But it was his wartime ordeal as commander of a machine-gun...

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DIBELIUS, OTTO

DIBELIUS, OTTO (1880–1967), Protestant* minister; superintendent of the Prussian Evangelical Church. Born in Berlin,* he took a doctorate in 1902, obtained a license in theology in 1906, and then held various pastorates for two decades. Among a distinguished group of church leaders, he was stunned by the November Revolution*; yet he viewed it as an opportunity for the Evangelischekirche to renew itself without...

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DAUMIG, ERNST

DA¨UMIG, ERNST (1866–1922), politician; chief advocate for founding a Ra¨terepublik rather than a parliamentary democracy. Born in Merseburg, he failed to learn a trade in his youth and during 1887–1898 served consecutively in the German army and the French Foreign Legion. In 1898, having returned to Germany, he joined the SPD. For several years he assisted with socialist educational programs while working for...

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DAHLEM, FRANZ

DAHLEM, FRANZ (1892–1981), politician; among those who split with the USPD in 1920 to join the KPD. Born in the Lorraine city of Rohrbach, he entered Cologne's SPD after completing business studies in 1913. A soldier in World War I, he joined the breakaway USPD in 1917 and was later a member of Cologne's Workers' and Soldiers' Council.* When in October 1920...

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CONGRESS OF WORKERS' AND SOLDIERS' COUNCILS

CONGRESS OF WORKERS' AND SOLDIERS' COUNCILS (Ra¨tekongress). Held at the request of the USPD, the first and most significant General Congress of German Workers' and Soldiers' Councils met in the Prussian Abgeordnetenhaus from 16 to 21 December 1918. Elections to the event, held in late November and reflective of worker opinion at the time, gave the SPD an overwhelming preponderance of the 514...

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