LE SITE D'AIDE A LA DISSERTATION ET AU COMMENTAIRE DE TEXTE EN PHILOSOPHIE

EXEMPLES DE RECHERCHE


POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

CIVIL SERVICE

CIVIL SERVICE. A considerable section of Germany's middle class (see Mittelstand) consisted of civil servants (Beamten). Since the great mass of this group performed ‘‘politically neutral'' tasks such as teaching, tax collection, postal and railroad operations, municipal services, and the filling of Protestant* pulpits, it is difficult to reconcile its ambivalence (indeed hostility) to the Republic. But like its landowners and officers, Germany's...

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CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART

CHAMBERLAIN, HOUSTON STEWART (1855–1927), racial theorist; his concept of Aryan supremacy was embodied in Nazi mythology. Born to an English admiral in a village near Portsmouth, he was sent to Versailles in 1856 (upon his mother's early death) for tutoring with a grandmother and an aunt. The sojourn had a lasting impact, for when he later studied in England, he felt awkward and...

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CENTRAL ASSOCIATION OF GERMAN CITIZENS OF JEWISH FAITH

CENTRAL ASSOCIATION OF GERMAN CITIZENS OF JEWISH FAITH (Centralverein deutscher Staatsbu¨rger ju¨dischen Glaubens). Founded in 1893 by Raphael Loewenfeld, director of Berlin's* Schillertheater, the Centralverein aimed to combat anti-Semitism* by underscoring the falsity of its allegations. Prosecuting anti-Semites in the courts and assisting in their defeat at the polls, it also worked to strengthen both Jewish and German consciousness while educating Jews* on ways...

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CASSIRER, ERNST

CASSIRER, ERNST (1874–1945), philosopher; with Heinrich Rickert,* Germany's leading neo-Kantian between 1900 and 1930. Born in Breslau of German-Jewish parentage, he studied philosophy and German literature, coming into contact with Hermann Cohen (1842–1918) while at Berlin*; in 1896 he transferred to Marburg to continue studies with Cohen. On his own, Cassirer identified both his method and his philosophy as an example of Cohen's...

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BUCHRUCKER, BRUNO ERNST

BUCHRUCKER, BRUNO ERNST, officer; commanded the illegal Black Reichswehr.*A veteran of the 1919 Baltic campaigns who had been discharged for complicity in the Kapp* Putsch, he was inexplicably given command of the Black Reichswehr in 1923 by Lieutenant-Colonel Fedor von Bock, chief-of-staff of Berlin's* Third Reichswehr Division. A diehard monarchist, he hoped that passive resistance to France's Ruhr occupation* would escalate into a...

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BRONNEN, ARNOLT

BRONNEN, ARNOLT (1895–1959), dramatist; best known for the play Vatermord. He was born in Vienna; his father was Ferdinand Bronnen, a Jewish playwright. After World War I, in which he was wounded and imprisoned, he forsook prewar legal studies and moved to Berlin* in search of success as a freelance writer. He was soon a prominent Expressionist* dramatist. But while his work retained...

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BREITSCHEID, RUDOLF

BREITSCHEID, RUDOLF (1874–1944), politician; a champion of Gustav Stresemann's* fulfillment policy.* Born to a bookshop clerk in Cologne, he studied economics and earned a doctorate in 1898. The same year he assumed editorial positions for newspapers* in Hamburg and Hanover. Moving to Berlin* in 1905, he was soon elected to Wilmersdorf's governing council and served until 1910 as secretary of the Association for...

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BRAUNS, HEINRICH

BRAUNS, HEINRICH (1868–1939), priest and politician; Labor Minister and promoter of the Christian Labor Movement (Christliche Gewerkschaftsbewegung). Born to a Cologne tailor, he studied theology at Bonn and returned to Cologne during 1886–1890 for seminary studies. In 1900, after a decade as a pastor, he turned to social work with the Volksverein fu¨r das katholische Deutschland, a Catholic* group headquartered in Mu¨nchen-Gladbach. Dubbed the...

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BRAUN, OTTO

BRAUN, OTTO (1872–1955), politician; served as Prussian Prime Minister. Born in Ko¨nigsberg to a railway worker, he apprenticed as a printer before joining the SPD in 1889. He soon launched a career in Ko¨nigsberg's Party organization and assumed editorial and printing duties in 1893 with the SPD's Volkstribu¨ne (later the Ko¨nigsberger Volkszeitung). The assignment provoked numerous prison sentences; Hugo Haase,* a practicing attorney...

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BOSCH, ROBERT

BOSCH, ROBERT (1861–1942), industrialist; famous for applying socialism in the workplace. Born in Ulm, he studied precision-tool manufacturing; during extensive travels he became familiar with English socialism. In 1886 he founded the Werksta¨ tte fu¨r Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik (Workshop for Precision Mechanics and Electrical Engineering), a Stuttgart firm specializing in electrical ignition systems. A friend of Karl Kautsky, leader of the SPD, he...

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BLUMENFELD, KURT

BLUMENFELD, KURT (1884–1963), Zionist; championed the resettlement of Jews* to Palestine. Born to a judge's family in the East Prussian town of Marggrabowa, he was raised in an assimilated home. Although after legal studies he worked briefly in a judicial office, he was increasingly drawn to Zionism. Having joined the Zionist Student Movement in 1905, he was general secretary of the Zionist Federation...

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BLOCKADE

BLOCKADE (March 1915–July 1919); a ‘‘weapon'' instituted by England during the first year of World War I. Retained as a concept almost by accident in the early twentieth century, it was by 1917 the preeminent weapon in the Allied arsenal. Through its refined use, including pressure on neutrals who might otherwise have traded with the Germans, the Allies managed to strangle Germany economically....

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BLOCH, ERNST

BLOCH, ERNST (1885–1977), social philosopher; evolved a Marxism sustained more by Kant than by Marx. Born in Ludwigshafen, he studied during 1911–1916 at Heidelberg, forming a friendship with fellow student Georg Luka´cs*; Luka´cs labeled him a ‘‘born philosopher'' of the Hegelian type. Swayed by Expressionism* and the intellectual milieu of postwar Munich, his ideas embody key contradictions. He began his career in 1918...

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BERTRAM, ADOLF

BERTRAM, ADOLF (1859–1945), Archbishop and Cardinal; leader of the German Catholic Church during the Republic and the Third Reich. Born to modest circumstances in Hildesheim (his father owned a fabric shop), he studied outside of Prussian territory to escape Bismarck's Kulturkampf against Catholicism. After pursuing theology during 1877–1881, he attended seminary in Munich and entered the priesthood in 1883. Evolving into a distinguished...

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BERGMANN, CARL

BERGMANN, CARL (1874–1935), financier; Germany's chief reparations* advisor. State Secretary in the Finance Ministry during 1920–1921, head of the Kriegslastenkommission (literally, War Burdens Commission) in Paris, and principal emissary to the Reparation Commission until 1924, he had served twentyfive years with the Reichsbank when he became Germany's financial expert at Versailles. Between the Spa Conference* (July 1920) and acceptance of the Dawes Plan* (1924),...

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BENN, GOTTFRIED

BENN, GOTTFRIED (1886–1956), writer; his work combined elements of Expressionism* with a disturbing realism. Born in the West Prussian town of Mansfeld, he studied language and philosophy. On military scholarship, he took a medical doctorate in 1912 from the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy in Berlin* and then served briefly at the front as a medical officer. Through ties with Berlin's Expressionists he became the...

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BELOW, GEORG VON

BELOW, GEORG VON (1858–1927), historian; among the Republic's leading academic opponents. He was born in Ko¨nigsberg to a family renowned for landholdings, officers, and bureaucrats. After abandoning plans to join the civil service,* he studied history, taking a doctorate in 1883. Following an editorial assignment with Prussia's Abgeordnetenhaus, he completed his Habilitation in 1886 at Marburg. Ausserordentlicher Professor in 1889 at Ko¨nigsberg, he...

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BEERHALL PUTSCH

BEERHALL PUTSCH (Bu¨rgerbra¨ukeller Putsch). On the evening of 8 November 1923, Hitler* embarked upon an ill-planned ouster of the Bavarian government as step one of a national revolution. The Bu¨rgerbra¨ukeller, one of Munich's largest and most popular beerhalls, was the opening scene of his coup. Munich's leading citizens had gathered at the hall to hear a speech by Gustav von Kahr.* Among the...

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BARTH, KARL

BARTH, KARL (1886–1968), theologian; his commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1919) led fellow theologians to compare him with Martin Luther (Pope Pius XII deemed him the greatest theologian since Thomas Aquinas). Born in Basel to a professor of church history, he began studies at Berlin* with Adolf von Harnack* and then pursued theology at Marburg under Wilhelm Hermann and Hermann Cohen....

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BARLACH, ERNST

BARLACH, ERNST (1870–1938), illustrator, sculptor, and writer; best known for his monuments honoring Germany's war dead. Born to a physician in Wedel (Holstein), he became the master pupil of Robert Diez at the Dresden Academy (1891–1895) before studying at Paris's Julian Academy (1895–1896). It was a 1906 Russian tour, however, that inspired his personal style. His ties with publisher Paul Cassirer led in...

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AUER, ERHARD

AUER, ERHARD (1874–1945), politician; Kurt Eisner's* tentative political ally. Born in the village of Dommelstadl (near Passau), he passed an orphaned youth as a shepherd. At fifteen he was incarcerated for attempting to organize rural workers. Service in the Bavarian Guards brought him to Munich, where he chose to settle. He supported the SPD from an early age, becoming private secretary in 1896...

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ASSASSINATION

A conspicuous part of Weimar history was political murder. Rosa Luxemburg* and Karl Liebknecht,* leaders of the new KPD, were assassinated in Berlin* on 15 January 1919 by Waldemar Pabst's* Gardekavallerie- Schu¨tzendivision (Guard-Cavalry-Rifle Division). Kurt Eisner,* leader of a coalition socialist government in Bavaria,* was murdered on 21 February 1919 by Anton von Arco-Valley,* a misguided aristocrat. Leo Jogiches, erstwhile companion of Luxemburg,...

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ARMISTICE

The decision to seek an end to hostilities on the Western Front was made on 29 September 1918 by Paul von Hindenburg* and Erich Ludendorff.* In view of the later Dolchstosslegende,* it is crucial to note that the army's Supreme Command initiated the Armistice. This does not suggest that Hindenburg and Ludendorff understood the forces that they had unleashed; both men probably foresaw...

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ARCO-VALLEY, ANTON GRAF VON

ARCO-VALLEY, ANTON GRAF VON(1897–1945), assassin of Kurt Eisner.* Born in St. Martin bei Ried in Upper Austria, he was scion of a respected Austro-Bavarian family; an uncle, Emmerich von Arco-Valley, had served the Imperial Foreign Office as Ambassador to Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, and Athens. Anton, a former officer in the Bavarian Royal Guards, became enamored of rightist ideology in the wake of...

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ANTI-SEMITISM

ANTI-SEMITISM; anti-Jewish prejudice, founded on pseudoscientific speculation, that devised a racially based hostility toward Jews.* Although European Jews had endured centuries of religious enmity, they had been free to counter the hostility of Gentile neighbors by converting to Christianity. But the nineteenth century, which saw a steady erosion of religious belief, witnessed the evolution of ‘‘enlightened'' theories identifying Jews as racially distinct from other...

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