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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
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TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

Axis (Tripartite) Pact

Concluded on September 27, 1940, at Berlin among Germany, Italy, and Japan, the Axis, or Tripartite, Pact was the primary treaty creating the alliance of the three major Axis powers in World War II. The pact was concluded early in the war and at a time of high triumph for Germany, which had already 140 Austria invaded and conquered Poland, occupied France and created the puppet...

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Austria

Austria Having entered World War I as the Habsburg Imperial and Royal Monarchy—the Austro-Hungarian Empire—the nation emerged from defeat in that conflict as a much diminished and dismembered Republic of Austria, 32,400 square miles in extent, with a population of 6.7 million. The Treaty of Versailles expressly barred Austria from union with Germany. However, by virtue of the Anschluss of March 1938, the nation was incorporated into Adolf...

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Australia, navy of

At the time of the outbreak of World War II in Europe, September 1939, the Royal Australian Navy consisted of two heavy cruisers and four light cruisers, five obsolete destroyers, and two vessels classified as sloops (smaller than destroyers). Two liners were converted as armed merchantmen for the Royal Australian Navy, and another three were converted for the British Royal Navy, but manned by Australians. Additionally,...

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Australia, army of

When World War II began in Europe in September 1939, the Australian Army consisted of 82,800 soldiers, of whom the overwhelming majority— 80,000—were minimally trained militiamen. The 2,800 regulars included officers and noncommissioned officers as well as some coastal artillery 138 Australia, air force of personnel. Australia immediately contributed a division to the war in Europe, and it instituted simultaneously a program of voluntary enlistment for service overseas...

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Australia

Constituting the world's smallest continent, Australia is a vast country that lies between the Pacific and Indian Oceans in the Southern Hemisphere. During World War II, its location was of supreme strategic importance, with the Netherlands East Indies and New Guinea directly to the north, and the Coral Sea Islands to the northeast. The Japanese eyed Australia as the greatest of Asian-Pacific prizes and believed that...

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Auschwitz extermination camp

Oswiecim was one of many towns in southern Poland annexed to the German Reich after the fall Auschwitz extermination camp 135 of Poland in 1939. Germans called it Auschwitz, and it was here, outside the town proper, that a complex of three particularly infamous Nazi extermination camps were built during 1940–42. Auschwitz I, built in June 1940, was intended to hold Polish political prisoners. Auschwitz II,...

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Aung San

Aung San (1914 or 1916–1947) Burmese collaborator with the Japanese Aung San was the leader of the Dobama Asi-ayone ("We Burmans") Society, popularly known as the Thakin Society, a pre–World War II Burmese nationalist group made up of communist-leaning students mostly from Rangoon University. Thakin is the Burmese word for "master," commonly used 134 Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre by colonial Burmans in addressing Europeans; applying it to a...

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Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre

Auchinleck, Claude John Ayre (1884– 1981) British commander in North Africa and the Middle East Auchinleck was the son of an army officer, and, destined from childhood for a military career, he was educated at Wellington and Sandhurst. On graduation, he was assigned as an officer in the Indian Army and saw service during World War I against Turkish forces in the Middle East. During the Great...

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Attlee, Clement

Attlee, Clement (1883–1967) British prime minister at the end of World War II Clement Attlee replaced Winston Churchill as prime minister of the United Kingdom in July 1945, after leading his Labour Party out of the coalition with the Conservatives and achieving a large parliamentary majority. He served as prime minister until October 1951. Thus, Attlee was at the helm of British government as the war...

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Armed neutrality, U.S.

The U.S. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1937, and 1939 ostensibly codified in law U.S. neutrality in the gathering European conflict. However, each act also incrementally aligned the "neutral" United States with the Allies and against Germany and Italy. Although in its original form the final Neutrality Act (1939) prohibited the arming of merchant vessels, Congress amended the act on November 17, 1941, after encounters with German U-boats...

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Arctic convoy operations

The Allies' merchant marine resources undertook some of the most arduous and dangerous missions of World War II, and none was more harrowing than the Arctic convoys that transported war materiel from ports in Great Britain and Iceland to the Soviets. Some 4.43 million tons of supplies were shipped by Arctic convoys, representing 22.7 percent of the supplies the USSR received under Lend Lease. Losses were...

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Anzio Campaign

The Italian Campaign proved to be far more difficult than Allied planners had imagined, and when the advance that followed the Salerno landings stalled, it was decided to make a second landing on Italy's west coast in an effort to break through the Winter Line and speed up the capture of Rome. In conference at Marakesh, the Allies decided on Operation Shingle, sending Maj. Gen....

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Antonescu, Ion

Antonescu, Ion (1882–1946) Romanian dictator during the World War II era As dictator of Romania during World War II, Antonescu aligned his nation with the Axis. He was born in Pitesti, Romania, on June 15, 1882, and served in the Romanian army during World War I. Antonescu, Ion 65 After the armistice, he remained in the army as military attaché in Paris and then in London. Returning...

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Anti-Comintern Pact

The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded on November 25, 1936, at Berlin between Germany and Japan. On November 6 of the following year, Italy joined Germany and Japan in the pact. Ostensibly a defensive alliance against the perceived menace of the Soviet-controlled "Communistic International," or Comintern, the document was also the formal basis of the Tokyo- Berlin-Rome Axis, the World War II ideological and military alliance among Germany,...

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Antiarmor weapons

The tank was developed during World War I as a proposed answer to the trench warfare stalemate on the western front. Not only could the vehicles— when they worked—traverse trenches, their armor was impervious to machine gun and rifle fire. Although tanks were neither sufficiently numerous nor sufficiently reliable to make a decisive impact on combat in World War I, their potential had been demonstrated, and,...

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Antiaircraft weapons

Air attack, including tactical attacks against ground troops, ground installations, and naval targets as well as strategic attacks against cities, factories, and other ostensibly civilian targets as well as major military installations, was a major component of combat in World War II. Accordingly, the warring powers made extensive use of a variety of antiaircraft weapons. The antiaircraft artillery (AAA) of this period consisted of conventional artillery, sometimes...

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Anschluss

The German word for "joining together" or "union," Anschluss describes the March 1938 political union of Austria with Germany that resulted when Adolf Hitler unilaterally annexed Austria to the Third Reich. Anschluss was originally an initiative of an Austrian political party, the Social Democrats, who agitated for it from 1919 (after the Austrian government rejected it) through 1933, at which point Hitler's sudden elevation to power...

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Anderson shelter

The Anderson shelter was a personal bomb shelter used by some 2.25 million London families during The Blitz. The shelter consisted of 14 sheets of corrugated iron or corrugated galvanized steel, which were assembled to form a shell 6 feet high, 4.5 feet wide, and 6.5 feet long. The structure was assembled in a 4-foot-deep pit dug in the family garden, then it was covered...

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Anderson, John

Anderson, John (1882–1958) British home secretary and civil defense advocate John Anderson (later Sir John Anderson, first viscount Waverley) was born at Eskbank by Dalkeith in Midlothian and was educated at the University of Edinburgh and Leipzig University. After service in World War I, Anderson entered the British government as chair of the Board of the Inland Revenue in 1919 and then as governor of Bengal,...

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Anami Korechika

Anami Korechika (1887–1945) Japanese general, vice minister of war, and militarist Anami was an important Japanese general, who, as vice minister of war in the cabinet of Prince Konoye Fumimaro, led the faction that elevated General Tojo Hideki to power as Japan's generalissimo in October 1941. In the field, Anami commanded the Eleventh Army in China and the Second Area Army in Manchukuo. When portions of the...

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“Amerika” bomber

In contrast to Britain and the United States, Germany never produced in quantity long-range heavy bomber aircraft. Nevertheless, the Reichsluftfahrtministerium, the Reich Aviation Ministry, in charge of aircraft production for the Luftwaffe from 1933 to the end of the war in 1945, sought to develop a very large, very-long-range bomber capable of a round-trip transatlantic mission to strike the United States from Germany. Early in the war,...

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Alsace-Lorraine

Located on France's border with Germany, Alsace- Lorraine encompasses two predominantly Germanspeaking regions (in German, Elsass and Lothringen), which have frequently been disputed between France and Germany. The provinces fell to France in the late 17th century and early 18th, but as a result of France's humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, all of Alsace and the northern portion of Lorraine (mainly Moselle) were...

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Algeria

Located in North Africa, Algeria, at the time of World War II, was a French colony of 6.6 million, about 1 million of whom were European. With the fall of France and the creation of the Vichy government, General Maxime Weygand became the Vichy delegate-general of Algeria in September 1940. Essentially dictator of the colony, Weygand, in conformity to Nazi and Vichy policy, acted against Jews...

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Albania

Situated on the western Balkan Peninsula at the Strait of Otranto, the southern entrance to the Adriatic Sea, Albania was, at the outbreak of World War II, a monarchy with a population of a little more than 1 million. During the reign of Albania's King Zog I, Italy became increasingly influential in the country, and on April 7, 1939, the forces of Italy's Benito Mussolini...

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Alam el Halfa, Battle of

Commencing on August 31, 1942, a month after the German Panzerarmee Afrika was checked at the Battles of El Alamein, Alam el Halfa was Erwin Rommel's final attempt to break through to the Nile valley in continuation of his frustrated drive across Cyrenaica and western Egypt. Leading the British Eighth Army, Gen. Sir Bernard Law Montgomery deployed his forces near Alam el Halfa, an east-west ridge...

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