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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

France, air force of

France had been a pioneering presence in the early years of aviation, and the French military had been in the forefront of aircraft development during World War I. During the interwar period, however, French military doctrine denigrated the role of the airplane, which was seen as a secondary weapon of far less importance than ships at sea and troops on the ground. At the outbreak...

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Foxhole

In contrast to World War I, which, particularly on the western front, was a brutally static trench war, World War II was characterized by great mobility and rapid movement. When troops needed to hold a defensive position or to pause in an advance, they dug hasty defenses. A slit trench could be dug if time permitted. It held several soldiers and was often excavated in...

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Fortress Eben Emael

Fortress Eben Emael was actually a collection of hardened defensive emplacements made of concrete and steel and carefully sited on the Albert Canal north of Liège, Belgium. As the Maginot Line was intended to be the impregnable fixed defense of France, so Eben Emael, which guarded the bridges at Briegen, Veldwezelt, and Vroenhoven, was meant to be the sovereign defense of Belgium, a means of controlling...

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Forrestal, James

Forrestal, James (1892–1949) U.S. undersecretary and later secretary of the navy during World War II James Vincent Forrestal is best remembered for his postwar appointment as the first U.S. secretary of defense (1947–49), but during World War II, as under secretary and later as secretary of the navy, his formidable administrative genius enabled him to direct the massive wartime build-up of naval forces. Forrestal was a naval...

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Flying Tigers

The Flying Tigers was the popular nickname of a unit of American civilian mercenary aviators in the service of China officially designated the American Volunteer Group (AVG) and led by a retired U.S. Army Air Corps captain, Claire L. Chennault. The AVG, or Flying Tigers, had its origin in the 1940–41 authorization by President Franklin D. Roosevelt of an unofficial and covert U.S. air force to...

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Fletcher, Frank

Fletcher, Frank (1885–1973) U.S. admiral Born in Marshalltown, Iowa, Frank Jack Fletcher obtained an appointment to the U.S. Naval Academy and graduated in 1906. He served on numerous ships and in may postings and acquitted himself with such gallantry during the U.S. intervention in Vera Cruz in 1914 that he was awarded the Medal of Honor. He served as commander of five destroyers, a battleship, and...

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Falkenhausen, Alexander von

Falkenhausen, Alexander von (1878– 1966) German general and military governor of occupied Belgium Alexander von Falkenhausen began his military career before World War I as a military attaché in Japan. With the outbreak of that war, he was seconded to the Turkish Army and served with distinction in Palestine, earning the Pour le Mérite. He returned to the German Army and remained in it during the interwar...

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Eniwetok Atoll, Battle of

Eniwetok Atoll is located in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific. Here, on February 17, 1944, five battalions of U.S. marines and army infantry landed as part of a mop-up mission following the main battles of the Marshall Islands Campaign. The three principal islands of the atoll, Engebi, Parry, and Eniwetok, were held by a garrison of some 3,500 Japanese. The marines and army infantry attacked...

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Einstein, Albert

Einstein, Albert (1879–1955) world famous and highly influential expatriate German scientist The most famous scientist of his time and the most important physicist since Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein created the simple equation, E = mc2 that not only demonstrated the equivalence of matter and energy, but showed the tremendous quantity of energy inherent in the atomic nucleus. The insight, provided mainly by Leo Szilard, that such energy might...

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Dresden air raid

The massive Allied air raid on the medieval German city of Dresden during February 13–14, 1945, was enormously destructive and highly controversial. Many historians and others have condemned it as an act of wanton and vengeful destruction, a mission with no true military purpose. Others have seen it as just another episode of the strategic bombing of Germany, a program intended to hasten the end of...

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Donovan, William

Donovan, William (1883–1959) leader of the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) "Wild Bill" Donovan headed the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) during 1942–45. Born in Buffalo, New York, he was trained in law and began practicing in his hometown in 1907. He served with General John J. Pershing in the Punitive Expedition against Pancho Villa in 1916 as a member of the New York National...

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Dollmann, Friedrich

Dollmann, Friedrich (1882–1944) German army commander A career army officer, Dollmann enlisted in the German army in 1899 and, during World War I, commanded an artillery battalion. He was part of the select group of officers who remained in the army during the interwar period, and he managed to continue his rise, primarily in the artillery branch. By 1932, he was a brigadier general and three years...

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Dobbie, William

Dobbie, William (1879–1964) British military governor of besieged Malta Lieutenant General Sir William Dobbie was military governor of Malta. A profoundly religious man raised in the church of the Protestant Plymouth Brethren, he took what many considered a religious approach to leadership and has been criticized for his failure to attend to such practical matters as building adequate bomb shelters, laying up sufficient stores, and instituting effective civil...

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Dirksen, Herbert von

Dirksen, Herbert von (1882–1955) Nazi diplomat Dirksen was a Weimar diplomat and then a diplomat in the Nazi service. Born in Berlin, he studied law and became an attorney, then an assistant judge. He served with distinction in combat in World War I, earning an Iron Cross, then joined the diplomatic service, with postings in Kiev (1918–19) and Warsaw (1920–21). He was appointed consul-general in Danzig (Gdansk)...

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Dimitrov, Georgi

Dimitrov, Georgi (1882–1949) leader of anti-Nazi resistance in Bulgaria A Bulgarian communist leader, Dimitrov, based in Moscow, directed anti-Nazi resistance in Bulgariaduring World War II. He was born in Kovachevtsi, Bulgaria, and worked as a printer. Active in the trade union movement, Dimitrov became a prominent socialist and led the Bulgarian parliament's socialist opposition to financing World War I. In 1919, Dimitrov was instrumental in the...

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Desert Rats

The nickname Desert Rats was applied to at least three British army organizations that were instrumental in the North African Campaigns against the Italians and Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps. The name derives from the jerboa, a nocturnal rodent native to North Africa, which hops like a kangaroo. The 4th Armoured Brigade, which was formed in Egypt in 1938, before the outbreak of war but after the Munich...

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Daluege, Kurt

Daluege, Kurt (1897–1946) Nazi official who perpetrated the Lidice massacre Daluege, among the earliest members of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), established the first Sturmabteilung (SA) unit in Berlin in 1926, then two years later transferred to the Schutzstaffel (SS) and became a senior officer. He served as a member of the Nazi delegation in the Prussian legislature in 1932 and the following year became a member...

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Daladier, Édouard

Daladier, Édouard (1884–1970) French premier who reluctantly signed the Munich Pact with Hitler With British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, French premier Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Pact of September 30, 1938, giving Adolf Hitler the Czech Sudetenland. Born in Carpentras, France, Daladier was first elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919 as a member of the Radical Party. A vigorous politician, he served from 1924 to 1933...

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Dachau concentration camp

Established in March 1933, Dachau was among the first of the Nazi concentration camps. It was located 12 miles north of Munich and was originally intended as a "correctional" facility for those who spoke out against the regime of Adolf Hitler or who were for other reasons regarded as socially undesirable. Between its opening in 1933 and the end of the war in May 1945,...

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Cunningham, Andrew

(1883–1963) British First Sea Lord and a principal naval planner of the D-day landings Cunningham was Britain's First Sea Lord from October 1943 and was a member of the British Chiefs of Staff as well as the Allies' Combined Chiefs of Staff. Distinguished in his contributions to the Allied war effort, his most valuable service may well have been as one of the principal architects of Operation...

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Cunningham, Alan

Cunningham, Alan (1887–1983) British general defeated by Erwin Rommel in North Africa Far less well known than his older brother, Adm. Sir Andrew Cunningham, Lt. Gen. Sir Alan Cunningham started the war as commander of British forces in Kenya beginning in November 1940. He preformed very effectively in East Africa in 1941, which earned him promotion to overall command of the Eighth British Army, which had been...

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Cryptology

World War II saw an explosion in the development of cryptology, the science and technology of creating and breaking codes such as those used by diplomats as well as military personnel. All the major combatant nations employed specialists in encryption and decryption, personnel who worked in what the military calls signals intelligence. The British and the Americans were particularly far advanced in signals intelligence, intercepting and breaking...

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Coral Sea, Battle of the

On May 4, 1942, a Japanese invasion force commanded by Adm. Shigeyoshi Inouye left Rabaul, New Britain, bound for Port Moresby, New Guinea. Simultaneously, another Japanese force, led by the carriers Shokaku and Zuikaku, sailed into the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia. The object of these coordinated movements was an assault on Australia preparatory to an invasion of the country. Recognizing the imminent threat, and in...

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“Commissar Order”

Commissars were officers of the political departments that were established within the Soviet Red Army. The function of the commissar was to indoctrinate troops politically and, even more important, to ensure that the Communist Party exercised direct control over and through the military command structure. On June 6, 1941, about two weeks before the invasion of the Soviet Union commenced, the Wehrmacht high command (OKW) issued the Kommissarbefehl,...

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Colmar Pocket

During the Allied advance through France following the Normandy landings (D-day) and Operation Cobra, which followed, elements of the German Nineteenth Army continued stubbornly to hold a bridgehead at Colmar, west of the Rhine and south of Strasbourg. By the end of 1944, this 30-square-mile so-called Colmar Pocket posed a threat to Dwight D. Eisenhower's broad-front strategy of bringing all advancing units to the Rhine before launching...

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