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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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NATIONAL SOCIALIST FACTORY CELL ORGANIZATION

NATIONAL SOCIALIST FACTORY CELL ORGANIZATION (Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation, NSBO); never a union, the NSBO conducted propaganda activity among workers through the preexisting trade-union* structure. It was instituted as part of the NSDAP in January 1931; its basic framework evolved spontaneously in June 1928 in Berlin's* industrial district. The first leader of the cells was Johannes Engel, a Nazi who was also a factory-council representative. Although...

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NATIONAL BOLSHEVISM.

A nebulous phenomenon, National Bolshevism surfaced in 1919 among members of Hamburg's KPD and recurred at intervals (e.g., 1923 and 1930) throughout the Weimar era. Associated chiefly with the preindustrial Mittelstand,* it was marked by implacable hostility toward the bourgeoisie and enchantment with Russia. Linked variously to the radical Right and Left, it aimed to bridge the gap between political extremes, thus forming...

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MULLER, HERMANN

MULLER, HERMANN (1876–1931), politician; led the Republic's longlived Great Coalition.* He was born in Mannheim to a middle-class home; his father was a factory director. He studied business and then clerked for commercial firms in Frankfurt and Breslau. In 1893 he joined the SPD; he became editor in 1899 of the Go¨rlitzer Volkszeitung and served on the Go¨rlitz city council in 1903–1906. He...

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MUHSAM, ERICH

MUHSAM, ERICH (1878–1934), revolutionary, anarchist, and writer; a ‘‘communist anarchist'' committed to ‘‘Struggle, Revolution, Equality, Freedom.'' Born in Berlin* to a pharmacist, he was attracted to socialism while in Gymnasium; indeed, ‘‘socialist activities'' brought his expulsion. After apprenticing as a pharmacist, he began freelancing in 1901 and joined a bohemian group centered on the journal Neue Gemeinschaft. In the next decade he came under...

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MONARCHISM.

Writing in 1928 about the November Revolution,* August Winnig* stated that ‘‘when the Republic took the place of the Monarchy, nobody opposed the Republic in order to die for the Monarchy'' (Von Klemperer). Despite a mythology regarding the strength of monarchism during the Republic, there were few occasions, outside Bavaria,* when officials needed to fear an attempted restoration. This weakness is surprising given...

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MOLDENHAUER, PAUL

MOLDENHAUER, PAUL (1876–1946), industrial leader and politician; served as Economics and Finance Minister in the last cabinet of Hermann Mu¨ller.* Born to a middle-class family in Cologne, he studied political science before taking a doctorate in law in 1899. After he wrote his Habilitation in 1901 at Cologne's Handelshochschule, he joined the institution's faculty. In 1920 he moved to the University of Cologne....

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MARCKS, GERHARD

MARCKS, GERHARD (1889–1981), sculptor and graphic artist; directed the ceramics studio at the Bauhaus.* He was born to a Berlin* grain merchant. His romantic bent led him into an antitechnology movement. Judging Wilhelmine culture shallow and pathetic, he aligned himself with the Neue Sezession artistic group. After studying with August Gaul and Georg Kolbe, opponents of the Kaiserreich's monumental style, he began sculpting...

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MANNHEIM, KARL

MANNHEIM, KARL (1893–1947), sociologist; helped establish sociology as an academic discipline. Born in Budapest to a Hungarian father and a German mother, he studied philosophy, pedagogy, and German literary history before taking a doctorate at Budapest in 1918 with a thesis analyzing the theory of knowledge (Die Strukturanalyse der Erkenntnistheorie). In 1915–1919 he belonged to the Sunday Circle, a group of intellectuals that...

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MANN, THOMAS

MANN, THOMAS (1875–1955), writer; the premier literary figure of the Weimar era. Born in Lu¨beck to a prosperous businessman and city senator, he began writing small prose works as a youngster. Although he was a mediocre student—he repeated two classes in Gymnasium—his was nonetheless a disciplined intellect that, with superb literary skill, merged profound ideas and humor into loosely autobiographical writings. Abandoning Gymnasium...

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MANN, HEINRICH

MANN, HEINRICH (1871–1950), writer; ruthlessly debunked the Kaiserreich's rigid social structure. Born in Lu¨beck to a city senator and prosperous businessman, he abandoned Gymnasium studies in 1889. Although he was determined not to follow a business career, he appeased his father by apprenticing as a bookseller in Dresden. But after he published stories in the Lu¨becker Zeitung, he resolved to become a writer....

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LEDEBOUR, GEORG

LEDEBOUR, GEORG (1850–1947), politician; prominent figure in the Spartacist Uprising.* Born in Hanover, he lost his parents at an early age. Despite a crippling bone disease, he served in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. He joined the Progressive Party after a prolonged sojourn in England (1876–1882) and from 1884 worked as a journalist for the Party's Demokratische Bla¨tter. But frustrated by the Party's...

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LAUE, MAX VON

LAUE, MAX VON, born Max Laue (1879–1960), physicist; founded the field of X-ray structural analysis (crystallography). Born in the village of Pfaffendorf bei Koblenz, he began studying physics in 1898 while fulfilling his military obligation. Specializing in theoretical physics, he developed a parallel interest in optics under the influence of Berlin's Otto Lummer. He took his doctorate in 1903 under Max Planck.* Although Laue...

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LANG, FRITZ

LANG, FRITZ (1890–1976), director; deemed the most ingenious filmmaker of the Weimar era. Born in Vienna, he studied architecture at the city's Technische Hochschule. But an interest in art led him to the Kunstakademie and then to Munich's Kunstgewerbeschule. He ended his studies in 1911 and traveled extensively before settling in Paris in 1913 and working as a painter, fashion designer, and cabaret...

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KRAUSS, WERNER

KRAUSS, WERNER (1884–1959), actor; with Fritz Kortner,* the premier performer on Germany's Expressionist* stage. Born in the Franconian village of Gestungshausen, he descended from a line of Lutheran pastors. While he was studying at a teachers' institute in Breslau, he was suspended for repeated appearances on a local stage. He acted from 1904 with traveling companies in Breslau, Aachen, and Nuremberg and then...

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KOLLWITZ, KATHE

KOLLWITZ, KATHE, ne´e Schmidt (1867–1945), sculptor and graphic artist; her empathetic work made her one of the century's best-known women* artists. Born in Ko¨nigsberg, she was inspired by a socialist-Christian upbringing. She moved to Berlin* in 1885 to study at Karl Stauffer-Bern's School for Women Artists and pursued similar studies in Munich during 1888–1889. After marrying the physician Karl Kollwitz in 1891, she...

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KOHLER, HEINRICH

KOHLER, HEINRICH (1878–1949), politician; Finance Minister in Wilhelm Marx's* fourth cabinet. Born in Karlsruhe, he joined the civil service,* beginning work in 1897 in Baden's Finance Office. He was elected in 1911 to Karlsruhe's city assembly and entered the Landtag in 1913 as a Center Party* deputy. In 1915–1918 he was a tariff commissioner in occupied Belgium. Close to Joseph Wirth* and a...

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KLEIBER, ERICH

KLEIBER, ERICH (1890–1956), conductor; led Berlin's* Staatsoper during 1923–1934. Born to a language teacher in Vienna, he was orphaned at age seven and raised first by his maternal grandparents in Prague and then by an aunt in Vienna. It was by way of performances of the Mahler-directed Court Opera (Hofoper) that he formed his love for music.* In 1908 he went to...

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KLAGES, LUDWIG

KLAGES, LUDWIG (1872–1956), cultural theorist; a member of the George Circle for whom ‘‘research into the unconscious became worship of the unconscious'' (Pachter). Born in Hanover, he studied physics and philosophy before taking a doctorate in 1901 in chemistry. Despite what he called a ‘‘practical'' approach to education, his humanistic bent led him to coedit Bla¨tter fu¨r die Kunst during 1892–1904 with Stefan...

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KEHR, ECKART

KEHR, ECKART (1902–1933), historian; deemed the enfant terrible of the German historical community. Born in Brandenburg to a respected family of academics, he matured into a democrat with strong socialist leanings. While studying at Berlin,* he served as Assistent to Friedrich Meinecke.* Kehr was unique at challenging the academy's political history by giving it a systematic socioeconomic basis. Taking inspiration from Max Weber,*...

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KASTL, LUDWIG

KASTL, LUDWIG (1878–1969), economics expert; participated in negotiations for both the Dawes and Young plans.* Born near the Rhineland village of Altenbamberg, he was raised in Bad Mu¨nster am Stein. He studied law and political science before taking state exams and accepting appointment with the provincial government of Upper Bavaria. In 1906, recently assigned to the colonial section of the Foreign Office, he...

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KANTOROWICZ, ERNST

KANTOROWICZ, ERNST (1895–1963), historian; among the century's premier medievalists. Born to an affluent middle-class family in Posen (now Poznan), he was studying philosophy at Berlin* when World War I erupted. He volunteered for the army and served first in France (he was wounded at Verdun) and then in Turkey. While working on the Baghdad Railway, he learned Arabic and formed an interest in...

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KANDINSKY, WASSILY

KANDINSKY, WASSILY (1866–1944), painter and writer; La´szlo´ Moholy- Nagy* called him ‘‘the great initiator of abstract painting, whose theoretical work represents the beginning of a new art history'' (Selz). Born in Moscow, he received a solid education in music* and jurisprudence. After he completed formal studies in 1893, he began a legal apprenticeship; indeed, until age thirty he never studied art. But in...

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KAISER WILHELM SOCIETY

KAISER WILHELM SOCIETY (Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft, KWG). Founded in 1911 as part of a centennial celebration for the University of Berlin,* the KWG was sponsored by the German Emperor. Its goal was to create institutes in which scholars pursued pure and applied research beyond the scope of universities dedicated primarily to teaching. Its leading voice and its president until 1930 was the theologian Adolf von...

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JESSNER, LEOPOLD

JESSNER, LEOPOLD (1878–1945), actor, director, and theater* manager; Berlin's* most renowned director in the Republic's early years. Born in Ko¨- nigsberg, he began his stage career in 1897 as an actor with the Cottbus Stadttheater. Soon after 1900 he acted and directed with the Ibsen Theater. He was appointed director of Hamburg's Thaliatheater in 1908; his imaginative summer programming with the city's Volksschauspiele...

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JASPERS, KARL

JASPERS, KARL (1883–1969), philosopher; among the founders of existentialism. Born in Oldenburg in East Frisia, he studied law before taking a medical doctorate in 1909 at Heidelberg; he then worked at Heidelberg's psychiatric hospital as a research assistant. In 1913, after he published his masterful Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General psychopathology), he was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor of psychology at Heidelberg. Just after World War I he...

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