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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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JASPERS, KARL

JASPERS, KARL (1883–1969), philosopher; among the founders of existentialism. Born in Oldenburg in East Frisia, he studied law before taking a medical doctorate in 1909 at Heidelberg; he then worked at Heidelberg's psychiatric hospital as a research assistant. In 1913, after he published his masterful Allgemeine Psychopathologie (General psychopathology), he was appointed ausserordentlicher Professor of psychology at Heidelberg. Just after World War I he...

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ITTEN, JOHANNES

ITTEN, JOHANNES (1888–1967), artist; developed the Bauhaus's* introductory course in design. Born in the Berner Oberland in Switzerland, he attended the teachers institute in Bern-Hofwil before studying at Geneva's E ´ cole des Beaux Arts. Although he prepared to teach secondary school (he received a diploma in 1912), he soon turned to painting and studied during 1913–1916 under Stuttgart's Adolf Hoelzel. He turned...

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HUSSERL, EDMUND

HUSSERL, EDMUND (1859–1938), philosopher; devised phenomenology, a method of probing beneath external existence to a positive perception of fundamental essence. Born of Jewish parentage in the Habsburg city of Prossnitz, he studied mathematics at Berlin* and psychology at Vienna and taught at Halle, Go¨ttingen, and Freiburg (from 1916). His circle of skilled students was such that when he was called in 1923 to...

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HERTZ, GUSTAV

HERTZ, GUSTAV (1887–1975), physicist; with James Franck,* provided proof for Max Planck's* quantum theory. Born in Hamburg, a nephew of physicist Heinrich Hertz, he studied at Berlin,* where he was mentored by Heinrich Rubens and took a doctorate in 1911. While collaborating with Franck in the laboratory of Emil Warburg, he detected quantized energy transfer in collisions between electrons and atoms. This initial...

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HELLPACH, WILLY

HELLPACH, WILLY (1877–1955), psychologist and politician; DDP candidate for President in 1925. Born to a court official in the Lower Silesian town of Oels (now Olesnica), he switched from medical studies to psychology and earned a doctorate in 1899 under Leipzig's Wilhelm Wundt; he completed a second doctorate in 1903 in medicine. He founded a neurological practice in Karlsruhe and wrote his Habilitation...

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HEIDEGGER, MARTIN

HEIDEGGER, MARTIN (1889–1976), philosopher; widely judged the central figure in twentieth-century existentialist thought. Born to a Catholic* sexton in the Baden town of Messkirch, he was a Jesuit novice before studying theology at Freiburg. Attracted by the Aristotelian interpretations of Franz Brentano and the logic of Edmund Husserl,* he switched to philosophy and took his doctorate in 1913....

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HAVENSTEIN, RUDOLF

HAVENSTEIN, RUDOLF (1857–1923), Reichsbank President; largely responsible for the postwar monetary policies that induced Germany's hyperinflation. Born in the Brandenburg town of Meseritz (now Miedzyrzecz), he studied law and became a county-court judge. Having joined the Prussian Finance Ministry in 1890, he was named President in 1891 of the Seehandlungs-Societa¨t (Sea-Commerce Society), an organization attached to the Prussian State Bank. By transforming the society...

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HARZBURG FRONT

HARZBURG FRONT; label attached to the so-called National Opposition against Heinrich Bru¨ning's* government. Comprised of the NSDAP (Hitler*), the DNVP (Alfred Hugenberg*), the Stahlhelm* (Franz Seldte*), the Pan- German League, and the Vaterla¨ndische Verba¨nde, the members convened at Hugenberg's invitation on 11 October 1931 in Bad Harzburg, two days after Bru¨ning announced a new cabinet. They were joined by Hjalmar Schacht,* Fritz Thyssen,* Hans...

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HARTLAUB, GUSTAV

HARTLAUB, GUSTAV (1884–1963), art historian; coined the term Neue Sachlichkeit.* Born in Bremen to a well-established family, he studied modern art history and completed a doctorate in 1910 at Go¨ttingen. From 1920, when he began directing Mannheim's Sta¨dtische Kunsthalle, he spent twelve years building a major collection of nineteenth- and twentieth-century art while giving lectures and hosting exhibitions. The Nazis dismissed him in...

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HANFSTAENGL, ERNST PUTZI

HANFSTAENGL, ERNST ‘‘PUTZI'' (1887–1975), journalist; the NSDAP's foreign press chief during 1931–1934. Born to a family of Munich art connoisseurs, he studied at Harvard during 1905–1909 and, to his regret, spent World War I in the United States. He returned to graduate work at Munich and took a doctorate in 1930. During his studies he met Rudolf Hess* and in 1921 joined the...

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HAHN, OTTO

HAHN, OTTO (1879–1968), chemist; directed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry during 1928–1944. Born in Frankfurt, he decided at an early age to become an industrial chemist. Defying his father, who wanted him to be an architect, he began studies at Marburg in 1897 and completed a doctorate in organic chemistry in 1901. To cultivate his English, Hahn obtained a position in 1904...

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THE HAGUE CONFERENCES

During 1929–1930 two meetings, both focused on the Young Plan,* were held at The Hague. Germany, France, Belgium, Great Britain, and Italy participated. The first meeting, held 6–31 August 1929, was attended on the German side by Gustav Stresemann,* Julius Curtius,* Rudolf Hilferding,* and Joseph Wirth* (Foreign, Economics, Finance, and Occupied Territories Ministers, respectively), plus three financial experts: Hjalmar Schacht,* Ludwig Kastl,* and Carl...

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HAASE, HUGO

HAASE, HUGO (1863–1919), politician; first chairman of the USPD. Born to a Jewish merchant in East Prussia's Allenstein, he studied law before opening a legal practice in Ko¨nigsberg. He thereafter gained renown defending the poor. Elected the first Social Democrat on Ko¨nigsberg's city council in 1894, he attracted national attention in 1904 with his defense of Otto Braun* (Prussia's* future Prime Minister). A...

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GUMBEL, EMIL JULIUS

GUMBEL, EMIL JULIUS (1891–1966), mathematician and pacifist; his documentation on political murders, published in 1922, established him as one of Germany's noted pacifists. Born to a Munich banker, he completed studies in mathematics and economics in July 1914, just before volunteering for military service. The war soon converted him to pacifism; in 1915 he joined the Bund Neues Vaterland, an organization committed to...

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GROPIUS, WALTER

GROPIUS, WALTER (1883–1969), architect; director of the Bauhaus.* The son of a Berlin* architect, he began his own architectural studies in 1903 at Munich's Technische Hochschule. During 1906–1907 he constructed the first buildings of his own design for an uncle in Pomerania. While working in Berlin in 1908–1910 as chief assistant to Peter Behrens,* he became friends with Ludwig Mies.* Establishing a practice...

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GORING, HERMANN

GORING, HERMANN (1893–1946), politician; elected Reichstag* President in August 1932. Born in Rosenheim in Upper Bavaria, he was raised in a conservative, middle-class family. His father, a colonial official, convinced him to attend cadet school; thus, when war was declared, he joined an infantry regiment in Mu¨hlhausen in Alsace as a second lieutenant. After rheumatism forced a medical leave, he was...

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GOLTZ, RUDIGER GRAF VON DER

GOLTZ, RUDIGER GRAF VON DER (1865–1946), general; led the Baltic Volunteers in 1919. Born in the Brandenburg town of Zu¨llichau (now Poland's* Sulechow) to a noble family that traced its lineage to 1297 and had produced forty-three generals (nineteen of whom had been awarded the Pour le Me´rite, Prussia's* highest honor), Ru¨diger chose a military career. He began service in World War I...

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GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ

GOLDSTEIN, MORITZ (1880–1977), writer and Zionist; advanced the argument that Germany's Jews* had no home in Europe. After studying German language and literature during 1900–1906, he became editor of the Goldene Klassiker-Bibliothek (Library of golden classics). In 1912 he published an article entitled ‘‘Deutsch-Ju¨discher Parnass'' (‘‘German-Jewish Parnassus''); the piece caused a minor furor. He argued that the Jews were directing German culture, yet had...

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GESSLER, OTTO

GESSLER, OTTO (1875–1955), politician; served as Defense Minister during 1920–1928. Born to a farming family in Ludwigsburg, he studied law before turning to city administration. He was elected Bu¨rgermeister of Regensburg in 1910 and was Nuremberg's Oberbu¨rgermeister during 1913–1919. His prudent wartime administration delivered both Nuremberg and Franconia from much of the chaos, including council rule, that marked the postwar era. A liberal...

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GERMAN STATE PARTY

GERMAN STATE PARTY (Deutsche Staatspartei, DStP); the July 1930 merger of the DDP and the People's National Reich Association (Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung, VNR), the political arm of Jungdo.* Also joining the Party were several Young Liberals (Jungliberalen) from the DVP. According to the merger agreement, Erich Koch-Weser,* chairman of the DDP, would serve as the DStP's Reichstag* faction leader, while Artur Mahraun, chairman of...

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GERMAN STATE PARTY

GERMAN STATE PARTY (Deutsche Staatspartei, DStP); the July 1930 merger of the DDP and the People's National Reich Association (Volksnationale Reichsvereinigung, VNR), the political arm of Jungdo.* Also joining the Party were several Young Liberals (Jungliberalen) from the DVP. According to the merger agreement, Erich Koch-Weser,* chairman of the DDP, would serve as the DStP's Reichstag* faction leader, while Artur Mahraun, chairman of...

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GENEVA PROTOCOL

GENEVA PROTOCOL; aimed at the peaceful resolution of international disputes, it was adopted by the League of Nations in October 1924. This amendment to the League Covenant proposed a broad extension of courts of arbitration and sought to institute the principle whereby signatory states would come to the assistance of any threatened member state. Requiring great-power approval, the protocol was quickly upheld by...

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FULFILLMENT POLICY

FULFILLMENT POLICY (Erfu¨llungspolitik); a German response to the Allied demand, conceived at the Spa Conference* of July 1920, that Germany ‘‘fulfill'' the terms of the Versailles Treaty.* In reality, the policy awaited the London Ultimatum of 5 May 1921. Finding Germany ‘‘in default in the fulfillment of the [treaty] obligations'' with respect to disarmament, the reparations* payment due on 1 May, and ‘‘the...

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FROELICH, CARL

FROELICH, CARL (1875–1953), director; a pioneer of film* as mass entertainment. Born in Berlin,* he studied electronics and engineering before his appointment as an engineer with an electrical firm. He was early enamored of motion pictures, and his background gave him insight into the running of a film studio. When Oskar Messter offered him a technical position in 1903 with the Messterfilm Company,...

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FRANK, HANS

FRANK, HANS (1900–1946), jurist and politician; founded the League of National Socialist German Jurists. Born in Karlsruhe, he volunteered for the army in the final year of World War I. Service with the Epp Freikorps* in early 1919 was followed by memberships in such nationalist circles as the Thule Society* and the German Workers' Party. He began studies the same year in law...

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