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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

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TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Toutes les dissertations

BLOCH, ERNST

BLOCH, ERNST (1885–1977), social philosopher; evolved a Marxism sustained more by Kant than by Marx. Born in Ludwigshafen, he studied during 1911–1916 at Heidelberg, forming a friendship with fellow student Georg Luka´cs*; Luka´cs labeled him a ‘‘born philosopher'' of the Hegelian type. Swayed by Expressionism* and the intellectual milieu of postwar Munich, his ideas embody key contradictions. He began his career in 1918...

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BERTRAM, ADOLF

BERTRAM, ADOLF (1859–1945), Archbishop and Cardinal; leader of the German Catholic Church during the Republic and the Third Reich. Born to modest circumstances in Hildesheim (his father owned a fabric shop), he studied outside of Prussian territory to escape Bismarck's Kulturkampf against Catholicism. After pursuing theology during 1877–1881, he attended seminary in Munich and entered the priesthood in 1883. Evolving into a distinguished...

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BERGMANN, CARL

BERGMANN, CARL (1874–1935), financier; Germany's chief reparations* advisor. State Secretary in the Finance Ministry during 1920–1921, head of the Kriegslastenkommission (literally, War Burdens Commission) in Paris, and principal emissary to the Reparation Commission until 1924, he had served twentyfive years with the Reichsbank when he became Germany's financial expert at Versailles. Between the Spa Conference* (July 1920) and acceptance of the Dawes Plan* (1924),...

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BENN, GOTTFRIED

BENN, GOTTFRIED (1886–1956), writer; his work combined elements of Expressionism* with a disturbing realism. Born in the West Prussian town of Mansfeld, he studied language and philosophy. On military scholarship, he took a medical doctorate in 1912 from the Kaiser Wilhelm Academy in Berlin* and then served briefly at the front as a medical officer. Through ties with Berlin's Expressionists he became the...

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BELOW, GEORG VON

BELOW, GEORG VON (1858–1927), historian; among the Republic's leading academic opponents. He was born in Ko¨nigsberg to a family renowned for landholdings, officers, and bureaucrats. After abandoning plans to join the civil service,* he studied history, taking a doctorate in 1883. Following an editorial assignment with Prussia's Abgeordnetenhaus, he completed his Habilitation in 1886 at Marburg. Ausserordentlicher Professor in 1889 at Ko¨nigsberg, he...

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BEERHALL PUTSCH

BEERHALL PUTSCH (Bu¨rgerbra¨ukeller Putsch). On the evening of 8 November 1923, Hitler* embarked upon an ill-planned ouster of the Bavarian government as step one of a national revolution. The Bu¨rgerbra¨ukeller, one of Munich's largest and most popular beerhalls, was the opening scene of his coup. Munich's leading citizens had gathered at the hall to hear a speech by Gustav von Kahr.* Among the...

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BARTH, KARL

BARTH, KARL (1886–1968), theologian; his commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1919) led fellow theologians to compare him with Martin Luther (Pope Pius XII deemed him the greatest theologian since Thomas Aquinas). Born in Basel to a professor of church history, he began studies at Berlin* with Adolf von Harnack* and then pursued theology at Marburg under Wilhelm Hermann and Hermann Cohen....

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BARLACH, ERNST

BARLACH, ERNST (1870–1938), illustrator, sculptor, and writer; best known for his monuments honoring Germany's war dead. Born to a physician in Wedel (Holstein), he became the master pupil of Robert Diez at the Dresden Academy (1891–1895) before studying at Paris's Julian Academy (1895–1896). It was a 1906 Russian tour, however, that inspired his personal style. His ties with publisher Paul Cassirer led in...

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AUER, ERHARD

AUER, ERHARD (1874–1945), politician; Kurt Eisner's* tentative political ally. Born in the village of Dommelstadl (near Passau), he passed an orphaned youth as a shepherd. At fifteen he was incarcerated for attempting to organize rural workers. Service in the Bavarian Guards brought him to Munich, where he chose to settle. He supported the SPD from an early age, becoming private secretary in 1896...

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ASSASSINATION

A conspicuous part of Weimar history was political murder. Rosa Luxemburg* and Karl Liebknecht,* leaders of the new KPD, were assassinated in Berlin* on 15 January 1919 by Waldemar Pabst's* Gardekavallerie- Schu¨tzendivision (Guard-Cavalry-Rifle Division). Kurt Eisner,* leader of a coalition socialist government in Bavaria,* was murdered on 21 February 1919 by Anton von Arco-Valley,* a misguided aristocrat. Leo Jogiches, erstwhile companion of Luxemburg,...

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ARMISTICE

The decision to seek an end to hostilities on the Western Front was made on 29 September 1918 by Paul von Hindenburg* and Erich Ludendorff.* In view of the later Dolchstosslegende,* it is crucial to note that the army's Supreme Command initiated the Armistice. This does not suggest that Hindenburg and Ludendorff understood the forces that they had unleashed; both men probably foresaw...

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ARCO-VALLEY, ANTON GRAF VON

ARCO-VALLEY, ANTON GRAF VON(1897–1945), assassin of Kurt Eisner.* Born in St. Martin bei Ried in Upper Austria, he was scion of a respected Austro-Bavarian family; an uncle, Emmerich von Arco-Valley, had served the Imperial Foreign Office as Ambassador to Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, and Athens. Anton, a former officer in the Bavarian Royal Guards, became enamored of rightist ideology in the wake of...

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ANTI-SEMITISM

ANTI-SEMITISM; anti-Jewish prejudice, founded on pseudoscientific speculation, that devised a racially based hostility toward Jews.* Although European Jews had endured centuries of religious enmity, they had been free to counter the hostility of Gentile neighbors by converting to Christianity. But the nineteenth century, which saw a steady erosion of religious belief, witnessed the evolution of ‘‘enlightened'' theories identifying Jews as racially distinct from other...

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ANSCHUTZ, GERHARD

ANSCHU¨TZ, GERHARD (1867–1948), legal scholar; deemed the Republic's foremost constitutional authority. Born in Halle, he studied law and qualified in 1896 as an accessor in Berlin.* Academic appointments took him to Tu¨bingen in 1899, to Heidelberg in 1900, back to Berlin in 1908, and again to Heidelberg in 1916. His focus was political law, later branching into legal history and church law. A...

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DER ANGRIFF

DER ANGRIFF (Attack); a weekly (later daily) Nazi newspaper,* founded in 1927 by Joseph Goebbels.* Intending to compete with Gregor Strasser's* Berliner Arbeiter-Zeitung, Goebbels published Angriff on Monday, when Berlin* dailies typically did not appear. Until Hitler's* appointment as Chancellor, it often embodied a leftist view on economics. In 1928, for example, Goebbels wrote: ‘‘The worker in the capitalist state is—that is his...

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ALSBERG, MAX

ALSBERG, MAX (1877–1933), attorney and legal scholar; among Berlin's* prominent trial lawyers. Born in Bonn, he studied law at several universities before taking a doctorate in 1908 with a thesis on the penal system and criminal law. In 1906 he established a legal practice in Berlin, where, with his courtroom skill, he became one of Germany's best criminal lawyers. Via an assortment...

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ALEXANDER, FRANZ

ALEXANDER, FRANZ (1891–1964), psychoanalyst; best known for his work on psychosomatic disorders. Born to a philosophy professor in Budapest, he studied medicine at Go¨ttingen with Max Verworn. Having completed medical studies, he was serving his compulsory year as a physician in an Austrian military hospital when war was declared. He spent the next four years as a medical officer. The turmoil surrounding Be´la Kun's...

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ALBERS, JOSEF

ALBERS, JOSEF (1888–1976), painter and graphic artist; foremost interpreter of the Bauhaus* following his emigration and widely considered the forerunner of op art. He was born in the Westphalian town of Bottrop. During 1908–1913 he studied and taught at Berlin's* Ko¨nigliche Kunsthochschule. His teaching status brought an exemption from military service during World War I. In 1920 he enrolled in Johannes Itten's* introductory...

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ALBERS, HANS

ALBERS, HANS (1892–1960), film* actor; the debonair hero in many of Germany's early sound productions. Born in Hamburg, he made his stage de´but with a touring company shortly before World War I. During the war, in which he was twice wounded, he took bit parts while on leave. While he was convalescing the second time, he began acting in light comedy. By...

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ADORNO, THEODOR

ADORNO, THEODOR (1903–1969), social theorist and musicologist; a key associate of Frankfurt's Institut fu¨r Sozialforschung. He was born in Frankfurt, where his father was a Jewish wine merchant (born Wiesengrund, Theodor adopted his mother's maiden name, Adorno, during World War I). Studies at Frankfurt led to a doctorate in 1924 with a thesis on the philosophy of Edmund Husserl.* During 1925–1928 he studied...

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ABRAHAM, KARL

ABRAHAM, KARL (1877–1925), Freudian theorist; established the first institute for training psychoanalysts. Born to a prosperous and cultured Jewish home in Bremen, he earned a medical degree at Freiburg and then took a post in a hospital near Burgholzli, Switzerland, to study with Carl Jung. The latter introduced him to Sigmund Freud in 1907. Abraham soon moved to Berlin* and secured a position...

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Renseignements sur épargne étudiante

Objet : demande d'information sur possibilité d'épargne pour étudiants. Apostrophe, Je suis actuellement étudiant en licence de biologie à l'Université des Sciences de Strasbourg et titulaire d'un compte chez vous depuis 1996. Les revenus dont je dispose sont constitués d'une bourse d'étude, de cours particuliers ainsi que de salaires de jobs saisonniers. Ces revenus me permettant depuis peu de dégager une petite...

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Demande d'information sur crédit étudiant.

Objet : demande d'information sur crédit étudiant. Apostrophe, Je viens de réussir le concours d'entrée en D.E.S.S. de Marketing à l'Université de Montpellier I et suis à la recherche d'un crédit étudiant pour financer cette année d'études. Pourriez vous me dire si votre établissement propose ce type de produit et, dans l'affirmative, m'en détailler les modalités d'attribution et les conditions générales...

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Demande information sur crédit étudiant

Objet : demande d'information sur crédit étudiant. Apostrophe, Je viens de réussir le concours d'entrée en D.E.S.S. de Marketing à l'Université de Montpellier I et suis à la recherche d'un crédit étudiant pour financer cette année d'études. Pourriez vous me dire si votre établissement propose ce type de produit et, dans l'affirmative, m'en détailler les modalités d'attribution et les conditions générales...

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Demande information pour choix de banque

Objet : demande renseignements sur avantages proposés aux étudiants. Apostrophe, Je dois prochainement m'installer sur Lyon pour y suivre des études supérieures et je cherche une banque pour y ouvrir un compte. Auriez vous l'amabilité de m'envoyer une documentation générale sur vos produits et les éventuels avantages que votre établissement propose aux étudiants ? Formule de politesse. Prénom Nom ...

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