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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme libre

POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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Fornax

(Furnace) Roman A goddess of baking, who oversaw the ovens used for baking so that they did not become too hot and burn the roasting corn or bread. She was the patroness of bakers. Fornax presided over the festivals of the Fornacalia, which were celebrated in early February, certainly before the 17th. During these feasts, often celebrated in households or small groups, people toasted...

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Fons

(Fontus) Roman The god of springs and fountains. Little is known today about this god, though an important festival, the Fontinalia, was celebrated on October 13 in the ancient Roman calendar. Archaeologists have uncovered several temples dedicated to Fons in Rome. Juturna, an ancient Roman goddess of springs and fountains, was Fons' mother, according to some Roman historians....

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Flora

Roman The ancient goddess of flowers and plants, budding fruit, youth, and springtime. Flora's worship may have begun among the Sabine people, one of the many central Italian cultures, who brought her cult to Rome when they settled on the Quirinal Hill, one of the city's seven famous hills. Flora was often honored with Ceres, goddess of corn and Earth, and Tellus, a fertility...

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Flamen

Roman In ancient Rome, a special priest ordained to offer daily tributes to particular gods in the Roman pantheon. The flamens were responsible for organizing daily sacrifices to the gods, and were exempt from taxation and military duty. It was a peculiarity of Roman dictators and emperors that they accepted deification during their lifetimes, and so were allowed to have their own flamens who would...

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Fides

(Fides Publica) Roman The goddess or personification of honor, honesty, and good faith, particularly as displayed publicly in support of Rome. People called upon Fides to protect contracts and commerce, in private lives as well as in affairs of the government. Her origins in Roman religion were ancient, and she was held by some to be older than the great god Jupiter. Fides was...

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Feronia

Roman Ancient deity thought to be a goddess of fertility and childbirth. Although little is known about her, inscriptions show that Feronia was popular in central Italy. Her most famous shrine, near Terracina, was used for the ceremony of bestowing freedom on slaves. Terracina is an ancient town on the Tyrrhenian Sea, midway between modern Rome and Naples....

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Febris

(Fever) Roman The goddess of fevers. The people of ancient Rome and the tribes and people who lived nearby feared fevers for they spread quickly and often caused epidemics. Writers during the age of the Roman Republic and Empire recognized that the people, fearing fevers, created a goddess to whom they could offer sacrifices in an attempt to ward off fevers and to protect...

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Favonius

(Favorable) Roman The god of the gentle west Wind. Favonius announced the coming of spring and helped vegetation grow. According to the Roman poet Ovid, Favonius beheld Flora, the goddess of flowers and plants, as she wandered in a field. He fell in love with her, carried her off, and married her....

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Faustulus

(Faustus) Roman The shepherd who found the twin infants Romulus and Remus being suckled by a wolf and took them to his home to give them shelter. His wife Acca Larentia (1) nursed them and raised the boys as her own. Faustulus was, according to some versions of the story of these twins, a shepherd to King Amulias, who had ordered that Romulus and...

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Faunus

Roman One of the oldest gods; god of nature and fertility, protector of farmers and shepherds. He also had the gift of prophecy. Faunus probably evolved into a single deity from the original idea of the fauni, spirits of the countryside. He was usually depicted as a young man with the horns and legs of a goat, similar to the Satyr of Greek...

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Fauna

Roman An ancient goddess of healing and productivity of the Earth. Fauna was also a goddess of chastity and of fertility in women. Fauna was either the sister or the wife of Faunus, an equally old Roman god of nature and fertility. As a prophetess, she was called Fatua, and as a goddess she was also known by some as Bona Dea, which means...

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Fama

Roman A minor goddess who spread rumors, mixing truth and lies, and who also spread strife and disagreement. She was perhaps only the personification of the human trait of spreading rumor and gossip. When Fama, speaking in many voices, spread her rumors in the realms of the gods, Jupiter cast her out, sending her to live among humans where she found it easy to...

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Evander

Roman Evander was the name of a minor Greek deity from Arcadia whose history took on mortal details when he fled Greece for Italy. Evander was the son of the Greek god Hermes and the Nymph Carmenta. He and his mother were banished from Greece for killing his stepfather. They settled in Italy long before the Trojan hero Aeneas is believed to have arrived...

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Eurytus

Greek King of Oechalia, father of iole. Eurytus was a renowned archer. He promised his daughter Iole, to anyone who could shoot better than he. The great hero Heracles won the contest, but Eurytus accused Heracles of using poisoned arrows and furthermore of being a slave of Eurystheus and therefore unworthy of a king's daughter. Eurytus refused to honor Heracles' right to the hand...

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Eurystheus

Greek The king of Argos and Mycenae who imposed the Twelve Labors upon his cousin, Heracles. Eurystheus was the son of Sthenelus, a descendant of the hero Perseus, and Nicippe. Eurystheus became king because of the wiles of Hera, the angry and jealous wife of the god Zeus. On the day that Heracles was to be born, Zeus proclaimed before the Olympian Gods that the...

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Eurynome

Greek One of the eldest Oceanids, or ocean Nymphs, daughters of Oceanus. Counted among the Titans. She became a sea goddess after falling from power on Mount Olympus. Eurynome and Ophion, also a Titan, ruled the realm of these early gods after Gaia and Uranus until Cronus and Rhea, the most powerful Titans, seized power and threw them into the sea. Eurynome's place in...

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Eurylochus

Greek One of the crewmen on the journey of Odysseus and, apart from Odysseus himself, the only one to escape the spell of Circe, the witch who turned men into swine. (See the Odyssey.) Eurylochus, who had been the head of the party exploring Circe's island, hid, saw what happened to his shipmates and fled to warn Odysseus. Later, when Odysseus and his crew...

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Eurydice

Greek A beautiful Dryad (tree Nymph) who became the wife of Orpheus. While pursued by Aristaeur, she was bitten by a serpent and died. Stricken with grief, Orpheus charmed his way into the Underworld (1) and persuaded Hades to release his wife. Seduced by the beautiful music of Orpheus, Hades let Eurydice go, on the condition that Orpheus would not look back to see...

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Eurybia

Greek A Titan; daughter of the Earth Mother Gaia and her son Pontus, an early sea god. This heritage gave Eurybia power over the seas, perhaps even over the tides and the rise and fall of the constellations. She married the Titan god Crius and with him had three children, Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses....

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Euryale

(Wide-Stepping) Greek One of the three gorgons, female monsters; daughter of Ceto, an ancient sea goddess, and Phorcys; her sisters were Stheno and Medusa. Euryale and Stheno were immortal, while their sister, Medusa, was mortal. Euryale and Stheno shared with Medusa the power to turn people to stone when the mortals looked into a gorgon's eyes. The hero Perseus was sent by Polydectes to retrieve the...

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Europa

Greek Daughter of Agenor, king of Tyre (a seaport in Phoenicia) and Telephassa, and the sister of Cadmus, Phoenix, and Cilix. Mother of Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon with Zeus; and of Euphemus with Poseidon; wife of Asterion, king of Crete. Europa 53 Europa was famed for her beauty. Zeus fell in love with her and, knowing that the maiden liked to wander on the shore, devised...

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Euripides

(480–406 b.c.) One of the great Greek tragedians, ranked with Aeschylus and Sophocles, though his attitudes were very different from theirs. He found it hard to believe that the gods and goddesses, with their capricious, all-too-human ways, were the creators of the universe. To him, mortal men and women were more interesting and noble, and their triumphs and tragedies more worthy of notice and of...

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Eunomia

(Order) Greek A goddess of order and lawful conduct and one of the three Horae, guardians of the seasons, with her sisters Dike (Justice) and Eirene (Peace). She was the daughter of Zeus and Themis. Eunomia involved herself in the law-making process, helping mankind establish wise laws that allowed societies to prosper. Cities would lay claim to her, bragging that she chose to dwell...

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Eumenides

(Good-Tempered Ones) Greek The ironic name Greek people used for the Erinyes, fearsome creatures whose name means Furies. Eumenides is the term writers and poets generally used for them in literature....

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Etruria

Roman An ancient culture that thrived in west central Italy from as early as the eighth to the fourth centuries b.c. Etruria was northwest of Rome. Archaeologists and historians have concluded that Etruria was not a kingdom or nation as much as a people who shared a culture and a language and lived in what are now the regions of Tuscany and Umbria. The...

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