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POUR LE SUJET: L'homme est-il réellement libre ?
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POUR LE SUJET: En quel sens la société libère-t-elle l'homme de la nature ?
TAPEZ LES MOTS-CLES: homme nature ou homme nature société
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The Dance Hall at Arles - Vincent Van Gogh

In this evocative painting of figures flooding across the dance hall in Aries, Van Gogh emulated themes used by Renoir and his friend Toulouse-Lautrec. The flat handling of the colour contrasts follows a similar direction to Toulouse-Lautrec's graphic paintings of the Moulin Rouge series, while the cheerful colour and crowds of bodies are reminiscent of Renoir's Moulin de...

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The Arlesienne (Madame Ginoux), St-Remy, 1890 (after Gauguin) - Vincent Van Gogh

This portrait of Madame Ginoux from the cafe in Aries was painted by Van Gogh directly from a drawing of Gauguin's that he admired. While at Aries Van Gogh said that he 'was powerless to paint the women of Aries as anything but poisonous', which was directed at Degas who had talked of 'saving myself up for the...

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The Good Samaritan, St-Remy 1890 (after Delacroix) - Vincent Van Gogh

Van Gogh likened himself to Delacroix towards the end of his life when he knew he had little time left. Like Delacroix, Van Gogh worked as one possessed, pouring forth drawings and paintings at an impressive rate: 'I discovered painting when I no longer had any teeth or breath left...' ...

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Noon: Rest, St-Remy 1890 and The Sower, Etten 1881 (after Millet) - Vincent Van Gogh

Throughout his life Van Gogh referred to paintings by the French painter Millet, who was a strong influence in his life. He made copies of works by Millet throughout his career, originally with similar colour values but later on with more intense colour, thus changing the effect of the picture. The sower in Millet's painting was a rather noble...

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Breton Women and Children, Arles 1888 (after Bernard) - Vincent Van Gogh

In this painting Van Gogh was observing and trying to learn from Bernard, a painter he had met in Paris and become friendly with. Bernard and Gauguin (another of Van Gogh's artist friends) had been to Brittany to paint the local figures in their traditional costumes and had tried to ignore the normal rules of perspective, producing works...

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Pictures after Bernard, Millet, Delacroix, Gauguin, Renoir, Seurat, Pissarro and Hiroshige - Vincent Van Gogh

Van Gogh's correspondence with Theo gives plenty of hints as to the influences that guided his artistic career. Sometimes he reeled off whole lists of artists who had caught his eye, many of whom have since drifted out of fashion and been forgotten. He very much admired the illustrations of The Graphic and the Illustrated London News, and every...

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Peasant Woman Winding Bobbin, Nuenen 1884 - Vincent Van Gogh

Van Gogh kept on working on the theme of the local peasant population of Nuenen and continued to draw from life. This painting of a woman winding a bobbin is similar to other works he produced of peasant weavers in their cottages. These paintings are typified by their very low-key colour values and are almost tonal paintings, which...

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Peasant Woman Stooping and Gleaning, Nuenen 1885 - Vincent Van Gogh

Van Gogh's studies of peasant women, bent over, working at a tiring activity, give the viewer an understanding of his models. This black-chalk drawing demonstrates the strong compositional tendencies that his drawings were now showing. It is drawn to a very high standard, especially the massing of shapes to create powerful expressions of the activities. His chalk strokes...

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Peasant Woman Digging, Nuenen 1885 - Vincent Van Gogh

The strong figure of the bent woman digging her spade into the earth is beautifully set against the sunlit hay in the field behind her. The dark, upper part of the background suggests trees and helps to throw into emphasis her sunlit haunches, back and head, giving a strong sense of dimension and substance. ...

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Women Miners, The Hague 1882 - Vincent Van Gogh

This watercolour heightened with white is a bleak picture of the laborious toil of these women who carry heavy bags of coal on their heads and shoulders and trudge through the snow of a cold Netherlands winter. The drab browns and blues of the dark figures clearly silhouetted against the snowy ground, the regular bare trees spaced out...

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Man Pulling Harrow, Drenthe 1883 - Vincent Van Gogh

This early drawing, included in a letter to his brother Theo, has an element of Van Gogh's later symbolic theme of a lone figure in a field. This particular figure does not appear to have any real symbolic meaning, but its dominating presence in the flat landscape is obviously something which struck Van Gogh as central to the...

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Seamstress from Scheveningen, Etten 1881 - Vincent Van Gogh

This work of a country-woman sewing, painted in watercolour and heightened by white, was painted by Van Gogh partly while she was posing and partly from drawings. It shows how his understanding of the values of texture and tone produced a scene that is full of depth and interest while remaining simple. The marks are fine and produce...

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Weaver Seen from Side, Nuenen 1884 - Vincent Van Gogh

In this painting. Van Gogh produces a very convincing interior painting reminiscent of Rembrandt in its tone and colour. With the clearly drawn framework of the loom set in the space of the small cottage of the weaver, the low-key colour values are realistic in their feeling of an unembellished working environment. ...

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Peasants, miners, farmhands and cottage industries - Vincent Van Gogh

All his adult life Van Gogh identified with working men and women; the industrial workers, servants and farm labourers - even prostitutes - whose rights were least considered by the middle and upper classes but whose labour was demanded unquestioning. In 1876 Van Gogh became very keen to obtain 'a job between clergyman and missionary among working people in...

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Figure on a Road, Nuenen 1884 - Vincent Van Gogh

This rather classic scene, typically Dutch with its limited colour range and tonality, is in pen and brown ink on huff paper. The scene, of an avenue of trees with the sun casting long shadows across the road and a lone figure, was produced, among others, by Van Gogh while he was in Nuenen. ...

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Old Man with Pipe, Nuenen 1883 - Vincent Van Gogh

This typical study, in pen and ink and charcoal, is of an old working man in his smock and trousers, tied with string. He is obviously taking a break from his work, possibly in front of a fire. ...

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Peasant Woman's Head, Nuenen 1885 - Vincent Van Gogh

The head of this peasant woman is handled in a similar manner to other peasant portraits he painted around this time. Van Gogh's desire to show sincerely and truthfully the qualities of a peasant is apparent in this portrayal. ...

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Hands, Nuenen 1885 - Vincent Van Gogh

While working towards his large painting The Potato Eaters, Van (iogh spent a lot of time drawing details of peasant life. He produced at least forty studies of hands, heads and complete figures in different positions in order to work out his final composition. This work is one such study although it was not actually eventually used in...

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The Potato Eaters, Nuenen 1885 - Vincent Van Gogh

By now Van Gogh had ended his happy domestic arrangement with his model and lover, Sien, as her mother had persuaded her to revert to her previous employment as a prostitute. Van Gogh's parents took him hack into their home at Nuenen and helped support him while he worked as an artist. At about this stage Van Gogh spent...

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Men and Women Miners Going to Work, The Borinage 1880 - Vincent Van Gogh

This watercolour drawing was made by Van Gogh while he was in, or soon after he left, the Brussels mining district of the Borinage. It serves as an example of his ability even before he began to draw and paint seriously. ...

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Orchard near Etten, 1881 - Vincent Van Gogh

Here is a brilliant drawing by Van Gogh done while he was at Etten. It shows his efforts to improve his artistic abilities in drawing with his use of texture, tone and perspective. He has used the tones of charcoal and brown ink to add to the overall warm tone of the trees and then has contrasted this...

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The Loyers' House, Hackford, London 1875 - Vincent Van Gogh

When Van Gogh was in England he went to the Royal Academy Summer Show and noted the beauty of the paintings by Tissot, the painter of society scenes. He admired many of the current artists and in a letter to Theo gives a list of names of contemporary painters. He said, 'most people did not admire enough' and...

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A priori

a priori : désigne des connaissances ou des princi pes indépendants de l'expé rience, et pouvant néanmoins s'appliquer à elle, par exemple, le principe selon lequel tout changement doit avoir sa cause....

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L'uniformisation des modes de vie

Dans Race et histoire, Claude Lévi-Strauss a souligné que : « l'adhésion au mode de vie occidental est loin d'être aussi spontanée que les Occidentaux aimeraient le croire. Elle résulte moins d'une décision libre que d'une absence de choix. »...

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L'homme, citoyen du monde

Déjà Socrate, au Ve siècle avant notre ère, s'était proclamé « citoyen du monde. » : « Je ne suis ni d'Athènes, ni de Corinthe, je suis citoyen du monde. » Et au XVIIIe siècle, Montesquieu déclara : « Je suis homme avant d'être français, car je suis nécessairement homme, et je ne suis français que par hasard. » Plus récemment, pensez à l'expression...

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