Devoir de Philosophie

How does climate change increase cross-species viral transmission risk?

Publié le 23/05/2023

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« How does climate change increase cross-species viral transmission risk? Introduction : When the Covid-19 pandemic started, it was said that the SARS-COV-2 virus was of animal origin from the Wuhan market.

Indeed, the source of the virus still needs to be clarified.

However, it is believed that it is a virus infecting pangolins that have mutated to infect humans.

This mutation is not the first and will not be the last.

Indeed, with human activities and therefore climate change, and global warming, this phenomenon is certainly likely to intensify.

And so we will see in this presentation: How does climate change increase the cross-species viral transmission risk? First of all, I will explain the impact of human activities on the migrations of species, then the impact of climate change.

Then we will make a small detour by a small genetic point and then by short examples of species concerned by these migrations.

Finally, we will take a closer look at a species that you have probably already heard of: the tiger mosquito. General presentation : In this presentation, we will review the consequences of long-distance migrations on the ecological dynamics of host-virus interactions. Throughout this presentation, instead of giving the exact terms, I have given less exact but easier and clearer terms.

I hope it will be understandable even though the subject is quite complicated and precise.

It's a subject that we don't often hear about and yet it's very actual.

You can ask me questions at the end of the presentation as you wish. 1.

Anthropological and ecological causes : In general, human activities discourage long-distance animal movement and encourage the formation of local year-round populations, which can lead to the emergence of cross-species pathogens in humans. For example, habitat loss due to urbanization or agricultural expansion may eliminate stopover sites and result in higher densities of animals using fewer remaining sites along the migration route.

These animals are highly mobile and seasonally nomadic depending on local food availability.

Anthropogenic changes, such as deforestation and agricultural production, have likely influenced the emergence of deadly Nipah and Hendra virus outbreaks in humans in Australia and Malaysia. Then, for some animal species, physical barriers such as fences (terrestrial species) or hydroelectric dams (aquatic species) impede migration.

Consequently, pathogen prevalence could increase when animals stop migrating and become confined to smaller habitats. 2.

Climatic causes and temperature : Finally, climate change will alter infectious disease dynamics in some migratory species. To survive, many migratory species respond to climate changes by shifting.... »


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