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Galileo: Galileo Galilei known as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. He was born on February 15th , 1564 in Pisa, Italy. In 1581, he enters University of Pisa to study medicine but in 1585, left Pisa without degree to live with his family in Florence. So he starts teaching an a tutoring. In 1589, he secured appointement as Professor of Mathematics at University of Pisa and wrote in 1590 ?De Motu?. In 1592, he secured prestigious post as professor of Mathematics at University of Padua and made observations of nature with long-lasting implications for the study of physics. Before it, in 1591 Galileo's father ,Vincenzo Galilei, died, so he has to look his family: six brothers and sisters and his mother who name is Guilia Ammannati. Marina Gamba became Galileo's mistress and they have three children. In 1609, Galieo developped telescope which was invented by Newly and arrived in Italy at this time. In 1610, he published ?The Starry Messenger? with great success. He moved from Padua to Florence under the patronage of Grand Duke Cosimo II . In 1611, demonstrated his new telescope in Rome. In 1614, he was attacked by Church publicly and was forbidden to ?hold or defend? the Copernican system, which supports a sun-centered solar system, by the Church in 1616. Even so, he published ? The Assayer? because the Pope Urban VIII, Maffeo Barberini, gave him permission to write a book about the two rival cosmologies. After 8 years work (in 1632), he published ? Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems?. As he was against the Church , the Church summons him to Rome and he lived under virtual house arrest outside Florence for the rest of his life. In 1639, Galileo became completely blind and died aged 77 in 1642. Galileo's personality: He had a very curious personality as he was a scientist. Galileo was convinced of his outstanding superiority as a scientist, as an inventor , and as a personality. So he was a little bit pretentious. Like he was curious, through most of his life, Galileo challenged much of the theories provided by the other thinkers and scientists of his day. While most of the researchers who lived during the life of Galileo were often inclined to accept the theories and reasoning of Aristotle, however Galileo tried to challenge those theories and ended up proving them that they were wrong. So he became a popular figure. Galileo was used to women of easy virtue but wasn't inclined to emotional attachment. But some women like Marina , who became Galileo's mistress, know how to handle the 35 years old Galileo. So he was sometimes manipulated by women. Galileo's opinion about plagiarism: First, he never paid attention to plagiarism. For example, he never published ?De Motu? for various reasons. Though curiously, fear of accusations of plagiarism doesn't appear to have featured amongst them. And when, he published the instruction handbook for his compass, he was accused to plagiarism because Baldassare Capra had already published an identical handbook, but it was Baldassare Capra who done plagiarism on Galileo. This incident was a lesson for Galileo that he never forget. So he was afraid and paid now more attention to plagiarism (= occurs when a writer duplicates another writer's language or ideas and then calls the work his or her own). The perspicillium is like glasses which is found in the telescope. An instrument that could make distant objects close up. This consisted of two lenses aligned in a tube. ?One of these marvels , known as a perspicillium, had already been demonstrated in Milan.? When, Galileo turned his telescope to the Milky Way (after observing the Moon), it was transformed from a diaphanous haze to a vast rash of stars. And he observed the Sun, and found that it had black spots ?which appeared to cons...

« marvels , known as a perspicillium, had already been demonstrated in Milan.” 6) When, Galileo turned his telescope to the Milky Way (after observing the Moon), it was transformed from a diaphanous haze to a vast rash of stars. And he observed the Sun, and found that it had black spots “which appeared to consume themselves”. These not only dissolved, but appeared seemingly at random, taking on all kinds of shapes like clouds. Any of the relatively cool dark spots appearing periodically in groups on the surface of the sun (its photosphere) that are associated with strong magnetic fields. Galileo's inventions and experiments: 7) - Galileo developed the objective lens “perspicillium” and used when he discovered the moons of Jupiter. - he developed the thermometer to measure hot and cold during the Paduan period. - he used the above apparatus to perform his experiments along an inclined plane and also to confirm his law on falling bodies. - built compass used for aiming cannonballs, it earn more money to support his family. - built a telescope ; with it he discovered many things in the System Solar. - created telescopes with x3 and x30 magnifications - constructed a pendulum clock (device) which could be used for timing a patient's pulse. 8) At the time, the works were most published in Latin. 9) Galileo's works were published in Latin like his work “ Dialogue concerning the two chief world systems ” and in Italian like his work “ De Motu ”. 10) The consequences of this choice are that Galileo was victim of plagiarism. 11) Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist who was born circa 384 BC in Stagira and his ideas were beginning to circulate in Renaissance in Italy as part of the revival of classical learning. And he died circa 322 BC (aged 62) in Euboea. 12) Aristotle's views on natural sciences, including philosophy of the mind, body, sensory experience, memory and biology represent the ground work underlying many of his works. He was the founder of formal logic. 13) - The medieval way of thinking was centred in “God”, unfairness. So it's the fact of theologians reflecting on their faith “under the roof of the Church” (the authority of the Church) - As knowledge spread during the early Middle Ages, it spread from one source the Church. By the time of intellectual stasis of the High Medieval era the Church had, almost unwittingly, annexed all knowledge. It based on Dante's poem, many thinkers like Aristotle, Ptolemy...etc 14) The Renaissance occurred between the centuries 14 and 17. It was characterised by the trans formation of art and architecture. It introduce a new era of self-confidence. For example “Commerce and banking were revitalizing Europe”. The Renaissance way of thinking was centred in “Human” and wanted to find out more about human and their mentality. Humans were taken to be of primary importance so religion was less important for them. 2 »


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